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Anderson Gallery 
The Anderson Gallery hours are 
Tuesday-Friday, 10 ann-6 pm, and 
Saturday and Sunday, 1-5 pm. 
The gallery is closed during July 
and August. 

September 6; Opening and 
Reception, 8-10 pm; open to the 

September 6-29: School of the 
Arts Faculty Show, 
October 8: Opening and 
Reception, 8-10 pm; open to the 

October 8-November 3: New 
Classicism by Joan Nelson and 
Mark Innerst; Constructed 
Interiors, including Rob Womack 
and David Noyes; Glass Struc- 
tures by Jay Musler 
November 12-December 15: 
Holiday Art Market (art for 
sale); Larry Miller: A 15- Year 

Fur mine mfurmatiun, contact the 
Anaerson Gallery, 907'/> West 
Franklin Street. Richmond, VA 2i284- 
0001; (804) 257-1522. 


Field Hockey 

September 7-8: West Chester 
University Tournament (away) 
September 11 : University of 
Virginia (away) 

September 13: North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill (away) 
September 19: James Madison 

September 21: Radford (away) 
September 24: Georgetown 

September 28: Villanova 

September 30: LaSalle (away) 
October 1: William and Mary 

October 4: University of Rich- 
mond (away) 

October 9: American University 

October 11: Northern Illinois 

October 12-13: Pfeiffer College 
Tournament (away) 
October 17: Longwood College 

October 22: Old Dominion 

October 26: Towson State 

October 27: Loyola College 

Contact the Athletics Depart- 
ment for locations of home 


September 4: Alumni Game 

September 11: Newport News 
Apprentice School (home) 
September 14: Old Dominion 

September 18: University of 
Richmond (home) 
September 21 : Coppin State 

September 25: James Madison 

September 28-29: West Virginia 
and Virginia Tech (away) 
October 5: St. Andrews Presby- 
terian (away) 

October 12: Averett (home) 
October 16: Randolph-Macon 

October 19: East Carolina 

October 26: Radford (away) 
October 29: Mary Washington 

All home games are held at the 
Cory Street Recreation Complex. 


September 10: Liberty Baptist 

September 13-14: George 
Washington University Invitational 

September 17: William and 
Mary (home) 

September 18: Western Ken- 
tucky (home) 

September 20-21: George 
Mason University Invitational 

September 24: University of 
Virginia (home) 

September 26: James Madison 

September 27-29: Wake Forest 
University Tournament (away) 
October 2: Howard University 

October 5-6: USA, Tournament 

October 8: George Mason 

October 11-12: Villanova Tourna- 
ment (away) 

October 16: Howard University 

October 18-19: Delaware 
Tournament (away) 
October 23: William and Mary 

October 26: James Madison 
University Tournament (away) 
October 30: Radford (home) 
All home games are held at the 
Franklin Street Gym, 

Firr tickets and mure infurmutiun ahttut 
fall sl)irrts, ciinlacl the Athletics 
De(>artment, H19 West FrunUm Street. 
Richmimd, VA 23284-0001; (804) 
257-1 RAM. 


VCU hosts one-week, summer 
residential learning experiences 
through Elderhostel, a nonprofit 
educational organization for 
persons 60 years and older 
Elderliostel at VCU is supported 
by the Virginia Center on Aging, 
July 7-12: The following seminars 
will be offered: The History of 
Medical Advances; Preventive 
Medicine; and Nutrition: Meta- 
bolic Music-Calories in Concert, 
The fee for the one- week pro- 
gram is $195 and includes 
lodging on the MCV Campus, 
meals, and all activities. For 
more information, contact the 
program coordinator of Elderhos- 
tel in the Virginia Center on 
Aging, Box 229, Richmond, VA 
23298-0001; (804) 786-1525. 


August 1-2: 14th Annual Confer- 
ence on Managing the School of 
Business. Course fee is S1 15 per 
person; conference is held at the 
Richmond Hyatt House. 
August 5-7: Organization and 
Management of a Preventive 
Maintenance Program. Course 
fee is S545 per person; seminar is 
held in the School of Business. 
October 20-23: 19th Virginia 
Economic Education Conference 
for Clergy, sponsored by the 
School of Business and the 
Management Center in cooper- 
ation with Economic Education 
for Clergy, Virginia Council on 
Economic Education, 

Fur mure mjuTmatiun ahuut these and 
uther scmmurs. cuntact the Manaf^e- 
ment Center. Schuiil uf Business, 1015 
Fluyd Avenue. Richmimd. VA 23284- 
0001: (804) 257-1279, 




The international continuing 
medical education series is 
sponsored by the Office of 
Continuing Medical Education in 
the School of Medicine and 
meets the criteria for Category 1 
continuing medical education 
credits by the American Medical 
Association, Summer and fall 
trips include the following: 
July 26-August 11, September 
6-22, October 4-20, October 
11-27: China, Each trip costs 
$2,795 per person. 

August 9-23, September 20- 
October 4, October 18-No- 
vember 1, October 25-Novem- 

ber 8: Italy. Each trip costs $1,695 
per person, 

September 15-22 and Septem- 
ber 22-29: London, Each trip 
costs $1 ,079 per person, 
September 20-29, October 4- 
13, October 11-20: Paris/Monte 
Carlo, Each trip costs $1 ,479 per 

For more in/oTrntition, contticr the 
Office uf Cuntmum^ Medical Educa- 
turn, Scho(^/ (j/ Mctitcinc, Bft.x 48, 
Richmimd. VA 23298-0001; (804) 


1985-86 Terrace Concert Series 
All concerts are held at the VCU 
Performing Arts Center, 922 Park 
Avenue, 8 pm. The Terrace 
Concert Series is sponsored by 
the Department of Music, School 
of the Arts, and the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts, The series is supported 
by the CSX Corporation, 
October 5: The Manchester 
Music Festival String Orchestra 
November 13: The Kalichstein/ 
Laredo/Robinson Trio 

Fur tickets and mure infurmatiun about 
these and uther concerts, contact the 
Department of Music, Sc/i(jo/ uf the 
Arts, 922 Park Avenue, Richmimd, VA 
23284-0001; (804)257-6046. 


History and Culture Series 

The College of Humanities and 

Sciences, in conjunction with the 

Office of Summer Studies, has 

organized a series of short 

courses on the history and culture 

of the Richmond area. The cost is 

$61 per course; the schedule for 

the remainder of the summer 

includes the following: 

July 1-15: Man, Nature, and the 

James River 

July 8-12: Black Neighborhoods 

in Richmond 

July 8-12: Racial Politics in 


July 15-19: Richmond Women in 

Virginia History 

July 15-19: Richmond's Writers 

Fin mine infinmation, contact the 
Office uf Summer Studies, 90/ West 
FrunWm Street, Richmomi. VA 23284- 
0001; (804) 257-0200, 

M A 



Z 1 

N E 

Volume 14, Number 1 

Summer 1985 

A publication for alumni and friends of 

Virginia Commonwealth University 

Elaine Jones, editor 
Scott Wrigtit, art director 
David Mathis, director of VCU 

Dennis MlVVuCc'ts. 


Limited Edition Discourse 2 

Program Chronicle 4 

Substance abuse among 6 

health care professionals 

Physician, heal thyself. This has acquired new meaning for those 
in the health care professions who have begun taking an 
earnest, albeit cautious, look at a problem they could rightly 
coll their own occupational hazard. 

After the war: New South 12 

An education professor traces the beginnings of today's Rich- 
mond Technical Center, the Virginia IVIechanics' Institute, which 
played an important role in bringing industrialism to the post-Civil 
War agrarian South. 

The practical power of 16 


Gone are the popular scenarios of the swinging watch, the 
unsuspecting victim barking at trees, or the patient completely in 
the power of the hypnotist, Hypnoanalysis is serious, therapeutic 
treatment for an array of human afflictions, from the cigarette 
smoking habit to complex mental illness. 

University in the News 20 

Research Exchange 24 

Newsmakers 25 

Alumni Update 


Located in Virginia's capital city, 
Richmond, Virginia Common- 
wealth University traces its 
founding date to 1838, Today, 
VCU is an urban, public univer- 
sity enrolling nearly 20,000 
students on the Academic and 
Medical College of Virginia 

VCU tVlagazine is produced 
three times a year by VCU 
Publications. The opinions 
expressed in VCU Magazine 
are those of the author and not 
necessarily those of VCU. 

Copyright © 1985 by Virginia 
Commonwealth University. 

An Equal Opportunily/Affirmative Action University 





By Paul Woody 

11 our lives, we've 
been told to say 
what we mean. 
We've been told to 
speak straight from 
our hearts, asked 
to have heart-to- 
heart talks, en- 
couraged to have a 
change of heart, suffered heartaches, 
and let's not even try to count the times 
we've broken our poor mother's heart. 

All our lives, we've had a fairly clear 
picture of what someone meant when 
the heart was mentioned. 
Until now. 

They're doing amazing things with 
hearts these days — transplanting them, 
creating them, taking them from ba- 
boons and putting them in humans. 
Someday, they may even find a way to 
take a human heart and transplant it 
into a baboon. Now, that would be 

But there are some problems that have 
nothing to do with a body's immune 
system rejecting the new organ. We're 
talking language here. We're talking 
from the bottom of our hearts. We're 
talking a heartfelt need to clarify some 
heart-rending problems. 

Being understood is no simple matter 
these days. English is still our native 
language, but the way it's sometimes 
used, you have to wonder what's going 
on. Now, heart transplants threaten to 
add a new dialect to our language. Even 
the most casual conversation could 
become a miniature Tower of Babel. 

Unlearn' d, he knew no 
schoolman's subtle art, 

No language but the language 
of the heart. 

Epistle of Dr. Arbuthnof. 

Prologue to the Satires. 

Alexander Pope 

Imagine this. Bored beyond belief at a 
party, you approach the mixed nut dish 
and begin picking out the cashews. 
While you're pushing aside a Brazil nut, 
a person you've never seen before ap- 
pears next to you. You notice a dab of 
dip at the corner of his mouth, you're 
slightly repulsed, and anyway, you can't 
find any more cashews and want to move 
closer to the cocktail franks. 

Then, the person says, "Sometimes at 
parties like this 1 get so excited about 
meeting new people that my heart skips 
a beat." 

You freeze. What now? You don't 
want to mess with this guy, but you feel 
an obligation to a fellow human being, 
no matter what residue is clinging to his 
face. You're aware it's not an unrealistic 
possibility that this person has an artifi- 
cial heart. Face it, one day artificial 
hearts are going to be even more popular 
than Nehru jackets, and stay in style 
longer as well. 

Imagine the thoughts that will flood 
your mind when you learn this person 
has a skipping heart. Surely, an artificial 
heart shouldn't be skipping a beat. 
Maybe it needs some finetuning. Maybe 
it has been recalled by the manufacturer, 
and this person never got the letter 
informing him of that. 

What should you do.' Should you 
excuse yourself for a moment and call for 
an ambulance? Or do you stand there 
nervously, hoping the person is just a 
dullard who speaks in cliches and is not 
on the verge of falling face first into the 
punch bowl? 

Suddenly, you're on edge. And to top 
it off^, some insensitive louse has sta- 
tioned himself next to the cocktail 
franks, inhaling them in a fine imitation 
of a vacuum cleaner. Imagine the strain 
this is going to put on your conversa- 
tion. Do you smile benignly and keep 
mumbling the rescue squad number to 
yourself? Can you remember what the 
American Heart Association published 
in a brochure on how to handle this 
situation? Finally, when the pressure is 
immense, you say, "I apologize if I seem 
distant. My heart won't take this kind of 

And your new friend says, "I'm sorry. 
I didn't realize you had an artificial 

That's confusing enough. But just 
think what can happen in more formal 
conversations. How, for example, can 
anyone expect to pass a final exam in a 
literature course if one can't understand 
what's being discussed in class (after all, 
who has time to read all those books)? 

"Fool!" said my muse to me, 
"look in thy heart, and write." 

Astrophel and Stella 
Sir Philip Sidney 

While new hearts give life, their 
existence may be the death of some great 
works of literature — and some not so 
great works of literature, for that matter. 

Suppose you're in a class studying Don 
Quixote. The point is made that Cer- 
vantes says Don had "a soul of fibre and 
a heart of oak." Right away, you've got 
trouble. Someone who doesn't much 
care for Cervantes or Don Quixote in 
the first place is going to seize the oppor- 
tunity to vent a little frustration here 

(besides, it's not good for your heart to 
repress your emotions). 

"I may not know all there is to know 
about literature," this malcontent will 
say, "but I do read the newspapers. And 
I know no one ever had a heart of wood. 
Plastic and metal, yes. Wood, no. I see 
no need studying a work ot literature 
that has no connection to the world in 
which we must function once we leave 
this classroom." 

Let's hope the class doesn't read 
Cervantes' The Little Gyps)! where we 
find that, "My heart it was moulded as 
she pleases, but enduring as marble to 

Or what about one ot the stories 
everyone reads as an adolescent: Edgar 
Allan Poe's "The Tell Tale Heart." Kids 
who had no interest in reading devour 
Poe, because finally they've discovered 
the forerunner of the Texas Chain Saw 

But Poe might end up on the endan- 
gered species list. No teenager who has 
seen his or her share of newsbreaks 
between favorite television shows is 
going to believe, as Poe's murderer tries 
to tell us, that there's something strange 
about burying a heart under the floor- 
boards. Today's teenager probably ex- 
pects everyone to have a spare heart 
somewhere in the house. 

M}i peace is gone, 
M}i heart is heavy. 

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe 

Maybe all of this doesn't concern you 
because you put freshman composition 
behind you long ago, and you lost 
interest in Poe soon after you discovered 
Harold Robbins. Fine. But that doesn't 
eliminate the problem. Let's say you 
hunger for culture and the nightly dose 
of "Hogan's Heroes" you get on cable 
television just isn't satisfying your crav- 
ing. Finally, you find a Shakespeare 
production in town. You decide to take 
in Othello at the local playhouse. 

Let's face it, Shakespeare ain't no Neil 
Simon. The Bard can be hard to follow. 
The actors sound as it they're speaking 
English, hut you're just not sure all the 

time. You've got to work to keep up with 
what's going on. 

In Act I, Othello says, "1 will wear my 
heart upon my sleeve." 

And the guy in the row behind you 
leans over to whisper to a companion 
several seats down, "Merv Lettucebinder 
got fitted for one of those new artificial 
hearts the other day. The doctor told 
him he could wear it anywhere he 
wanted, so Merv called me to ask where 
he should put it to get the lowest insur- 
ance rate. 

"I wasn't sure how to answer him. 
'Merv,' I said, 'I think the doctor meant 
you could wear it in the shower or to 
parties or to business meetings or with 
any of your suits, and not have to worry 
about it standing out or clashing with 
your tie.' But if this Othello guy is going 
to wear his on his sleeve, maybe I told 
Merv the wrong thing." 

These questions take your mind away 
from Shakespeare and your night of 
culture is wasted. You begin to think of 
all the times that day you said something 
pertaining to the heart. Remember the 
waiter who spilled a cup of coftee in your 
lap at lunch? Remember what you said 
when a colleague saw you leave a gener- 
ous tip? "He tried hard. His heart was in 
the right place." How can you be sure 

But all this may be trivial. The one 
thing people do more than anything else 
with their hearts is fall in love. 

You gave me the key to your 

heart, my love 
Then why do you make me 

''Oh, that was yesterday; 

Saints above. 
Last night, 1 changed the lock!" 

John Boyle OVeilly 

Consider for a moment what has been 
said in the more romantic moments of 
your life. Did you ever "give" your heart 
to another? If someone gives you his or 
her heart now, you could end up being 
forced to display, in a prominent place 
in your home, a rather unattractive 
organ in a jar filled with alcohol. Ro- 
mance may never be the same. Just he 
glad you're not in the Valentine card 

It may be unnecessary to love some- 
one "with all your heart." Now, men 
and women can say, "I loved you with 
all my first heart, hut ever since I got my 
artificial heart, I find I'm attracted to 
department store mannequins." 

And, when romances fall apart, think 
of some of the things that are going to 
be said — "I was a fool to think 1 could 
ever love someone who has the heart of 
a baboon." 

Ouch. If that breaks your heart, 
remember, you can always get a new 

And while we're on the topic of 
breaking hearts, who can ever forget the 
heartbreak of psoriasis? That's going to 
be nothing compared to some of the 
heartstoppers that might one day appear 
on our television screens. 

Envision a commercial break where a 
husband and wife get on an airplane 
after spending a week in San Francisco. 
The man looks into his briefcase and 
then panic spreads across his face. He 
leans over to his wife and says, "I forgot 
my spare heart." Suddenly, the whole 
cabin erupts in the song, "He left his 
heart in San Francisco, high on a hill, 
where little cable cars run." 

Then, a man wearing a trench coat 
and a gray fedora appears on the screen. 
"Only one company can provide you 
with a spare heart and guarantee to 
replace it anywhere in the world. Don't 
leave home without it." Perhaps, we can 
still get a case of heartburn from watch- 
ing such commercials. But it's still 
nothing compared to the difficulties 
Othello had with his heart. 

Remember when he was wearing it on 
his sleeve? Well, by Act IV, things have 
gotten worse. Othello says, "My heart is 
turn'd to stone; I strike it and it hurts 
my hand." He needs a cardiologist and a 
physical therapist. Now there's a man 
with problems. 

That really pulls at your heart- 
strings — whatever that means 
nowadays. C5 

Paul Woody (B. A. English, 1975; MA. 
1982) is a sports uniter for The Richmond 
News Leader. For many years, he believed 
the first successfid heart transplant was 
performed on the Tin Man by the Wizard 







By Laurel Bennett 

t was an operation 
that was so dra- 
matic and innova- 
tive that it de- 
manded an 
immediate re- 
sponse. And it 
did — from the 
medical commu- 
nity, ethicists, animal rights groups, the 
press, and the public. 

The operation that has inspired so 
much awe, ire, and controversy was last 
October's implantation of a baboon's 
heart mto the infant known to the world 
as Baby Fae. And the wide-ranging 
implications of this cross-species trans- 
plant has once again raised some striking 
questions that physicians, scientists, 
lawyers, theologians, and lay people 
alike can no longer put off into some 
indeterminate bioethical future. 

The questions that surround Baby Fae 
in particular, and body-altering experi- 
ments such as genetic engineering in 
general, have increased society's aware- 
ness for the need to come to grips with 
some profound moral, ethical, and legal 

At VCU and MCV Hospitals, ethics 
committees already in place are very 
much involved in discussing, formulat- 
ing, and teaching principles on such 
complex medical issues. 

With a successful heart and organ 
transplant program at the hospitals, as 
well as VCU's educational courses 
stressing the moral and ethical issues of 
modern medicine, several members of 
the university's ethics committees were 
open and candid in talking about their 
fundamental objections and defense of 
the ethical issues surrounding the Baby 
Fae case. 

In fact, within two weeks of Loma 
Linda University's bold surgical effort. 

the MCV Hospitals' ethics committee, 
under the chairmanship ot Dr. Edwin 
Myer, chairman and associate professcir 
of child neurology, met to assess some ot 
the ethical considerations of the inter- 
species possibilities. "Basically," Myer 
said, "the innovation of using a baboon 
heart in a human did not raise any moral 
issue with us. After all," he said, "animal 
kidney transplants in humans have been 
performed since the 1960s and various 
animal tissues and parts, such as pig 
valves used in by-pass heart surgery, are 
implanted routinely every day." But one 
of the questions the committee members 
did have, explained Myer, was why the 
surgical team did not apparently make 
an appropriate search for a human heart. 
"It doesn't make sense," he said, "to use 
an animal heart if a human heart was 

In discussing this point, Myer's group 
touched on one of the numerous and 
critical questions that have been 
scrutinized since the operation was 
announced. And while a discussion of 
this issue may be academic since the 
hospitals are not considering interspecies 
transplants, Myer sees some basic ethical 
parallels in the case of Baby Fae with the 
kinds ot decisions that go on every day 
in the hospitals. 

The hospitals' ethics committee, 
founded in November 1983, includes 
five medical doctors, one hospital ad- 
ministrator, and one registered nurse. 
Experts outside the medical profession 
are frequently on call when a particular 
case warrants their expertise. Though 
the committee was not formed to be an 
acute, 24-hour decision-making body 
(that is, explained Myer, a group "hav- 
ing to decide on a Friday afternoon 
whether or not a particular treatment 
keeping someone alive should or should 
not be terminated"), it does function to 
"examine and discuss general ethical 

philosophies and principles." In addi- 
tion, the group often acts in a consulting 
role as advisor to doctors and patients 
during times when critical decisions 
need to be made. Periodically, ethics 
grand rounds are conducted with up to 
150 participants, and cases are presented 
using the advice of a lawyer, a profes- 
sional ethicist, or theologians. 

Myer cited two recent cases that he 
believes touch on some of the same basic 
issues raised in the Baby Fae case. The 
first focused on the dilemma of keeping 
alive a newborn that had an insufficient 
bowel system to support life. The ques- 
tions Myer's group faced were who was 
responsible for the $l,000-a-day cost of 
the intravenous feeding that would be 
necessary for the ten years or more to 
sustain life? — and often in such cases, 
the question of the quality of the infant's 
future — was it enhanced by prolonging 
life, no matter what? 

The second case concerned the issue 
of whether a man on death row could 
refuse to have his doctor's recommended 
by-pass surgery to save his life. Was the 
man legally competent to make an 
informed decision? 

Similar questions have also been part 
of the Baby Fae controversy. But the 
issue of informed consent has been an 
overriding one. Myer thinks that the 
"key to any controversial therapy or 
experiment in humans is one of in- 
formed consent." 

Dr. Robert Redmon, chairman of the 
Department of Philosophy and Religious 
Studies and head of VCU's Committee 
on Ethics and Health, agrees with Myer 
that informed consent is a crucial ethical 
consideration. This kind ot issue and 
other medical questions are discussed 
during his committee meetings. With 
faculty representation from philosophy, 
patient counseling, genetics, dentistry, 

medicine, nursing, and pharmaceutics, 
Redmon's group focuses on the develop- 
ment of courses and other programs in 
ethics. In the four years since its found- 
ing, the committee acts to advise Red- 
men, who teaches ethics, on curricula 
that address such issues as the rights of 
patients, who should he eligihle tor a 
new hut limited wonder drug, and how 
to confront a nurse or doctor who might 
have a drinking or drug problem. 

In addition, the committee has ar- 
ranged for the popular series of hioethic 
colloquia given at lunchtime on the 
MCV Campus. 

When addressing such an issue as 
informed consent, Redmon believes that 
before a truly informed decision can be 
made in any experimental procedure, 
including the Baby Fae or the artificial 
heart cases, certain ethical criteria can 
be structured that will help to solve the 
dilemma of when to say yes and when to 
say no. 

He explained that a typical set 
of ctiteria might look like this: 
the first questit>n would be, 
How much scientific 
knowledge has been 
obtained from prior 
animal or other kinds ot 
research before proceeding 
to human experimenta- 
tion? Such consideration 
might also involve the issue 
of whether it is worth directing 
large amounts of money to certain 
kinds of research for an answer. 

The second question would involve 
whether the experimental procedure was 
the best available treatment. This issue 
also speaks to the very sensitive subject 
of whether an institution's or a particular 
doctor's interest supersedes the interests 
of the patient. 

The third question would be the issue 
of informed consent from the patient. If 
the patient is under age or declared 
legally incompetent, then who is compe- 
tent to speak on his or her behalf? 

Much of the debate surrounding the 
Baby Fae case can be looked at in terms 
of Redmon's criteria. 

In the first, concetning the amount ot 
adequate scientific background, critics 
have argued that there wasn't enough 
data to warrant interspecies transplant in 
Baby Fae. They say that although Dr. 
Bailey (head of the Loma Linda team) 
had done seven years of cross-species 

research on goats, sheep, wolves, and 
dogs, much more attention needed to be 
given to highet primate testing, which 
would have produced better data. In 
addition, they point out that nothing 
very new was learned about the immune 
system's rejection of the baboon heart 
since all previous attempts to use pri- 
mate organs in humans have failed just 
because ot this phenomenon. 

Proponents argue that the new antire- 
jection drug for the immune system 
offered better hope than previous at- 
tempts and that risks on humans must be 
taken at some point since society grants 
to the future some medical mandates. 

Assessing the second criterion, wheth- 
er the baboon heart was the best treat- 
ment, opponents say no. And most 
advocates agree that using a human 
heart would have been the procedure ot 
choice. As it turns out, it appears that 
the Loma Linda team had not searched 

for a human heart. Given this informa- 
tion, the issue then became whether the 
operation was in the best interest ot 
Baby Fae. The debate continues, but 
Myer said that in an academic institu- 
tion, such as MCV Hospitals, "the 
check and balance system is vety thor- 
ough. There is peer, chairman, dean, 
and the ethics committee review that 
protects and controls all aspects ot any 
radical procedure." 

The third criterion, informed consent, 
is still a matter of controversy. Critics 
charge that given the fact a human heart 
had not been considered, it was not 

possible for the infant's parents to be 
adequately informed as to the best 
treatment, and hence, they were unable 
to give a truly informed consent. Propo- 
nents say that given the use ot the 
baboon heart as the procedure to be 
used, the doctors would have taken 
every precaution, to the best ot their 
ability, to ensure as much intormatit)n as 
possible was available to the parents. 

Redmon thinks a good way to mini- 
mize the consent problem is to "make a 
clear distinction between consenting 
adults such as artificial heart patient 
William Schroeder, who volunteered for 
his operation, and infants like Baby Fae, 
who did not. In other words," he said, 
"avoid nontherapeutic experiments on 
infants and children who cannot speak 
for themselves." 

As the controversy continues over the 
baboon heart transplant, other people 
are looking toward the future ot genetic 
alteration. Such bodyshop or 

brave-new-world situations have 
^purred ethic ists like Redmon 
to encourage debates on 
whete society is going to 
draw the line. 

He maintains that there 
are clear distinctions 
between gene therapy tor 
health reasons and genetic 
manipulation for added 
features — distinctions which 
have to be "carefully weighed 
beginning today. Any attempts," 
he said, "to create an altered human, 
such as astronauts without legs to fit 
into tight spaces or people with gills to 
work under water, is simply out ot the 
question. The line must be drawn be- 
tween restoring health and human 

Redmon believes that both organ 
transplants and genetic engineering are 
issues which are encouraging a greatet 
number of people and institutions to 
look to ethics committees as the place to 
start the debate. "These committees are 
vital and impottant. Ethics are more 
than feelings or good sense. They are 
rationales, principles, and philosophies. 
We must use them so that no one person 
or group can ever have a free hand." CJ 

Laurel Bennett n a freelance turner m the 
Richmond area. 

Illustration b\ Scott Wright. 




By Anthony J. DeLellis and 
Ronald O. Forbes 

The names and back^ounds of the two 
patients whose cases are presented in this 
article are fictitious. To protect patient 
privacy, we created cases from actual 
histories that illustrate typical backgrounds 
and substance -related impairment and 
treatment patterns. We felt this measure 
necessary because the health care profes- 
sions constitute a small community. In such 
a community, providing even cursory 
information about real people might en- 
courage speculatum about their identities. 
B51 using fictitious but typical backgrounds 
and impairment patterns, the illustrative 
value of the cases is maintained while 
speculation about their identity is impossible. 

ependency on and 
addiction to drugs 
and alcohol, or 
"substance abuse," 
constitutes one of 
the major health 
problems in the 
United States. 
Ironically, the 
people who provide health care have an 
exceptionally high incidence ot sub- 
stance abuse. 

Pharmacists, dentists, nurses, physi- 
cians, and others in health care are at a 
high risk of becoming substance abusers 
when compared to the rest of the U.S. 
population. However, assessing the 
extent of the problem has proven excep- 
tionally difficult. 

In 1984, Dr. Herbert Kleber, a psy- 
chiatrist at Yale University, reported 
that between 10 and 15 percent of the 
nation's physicians appeared to have an 
addiction to drugs, alcohol, or both. 
Twenty years earlier, however. The 
American Journal of Psychiatry was al- 
ready citing estimates that suggested 
narcotics addiction among physicians 
was 30 to 100 times greater than among 
the general population. The authors, 
Herbert C. Modlin and Alberto Montes, 
called it an "occupational hazard." 

As with physicians, the scope of the 
problem among nurses is difficult to 
measure. Marjtirie A. Barr and William 
D. Lerner of the MCV Htispitals used 
demographic data and other reports to 
deduce that 10,000 nurses were either 
suspended or placed on probation by 
state regulatory boards every ten years 
because of substance abuse impairment. 
They also cited an earlier study that 

estimated the existence of approximately 
40,000 alcoholic nurses in the U.S. 
Realizing that alcoholism is but one of 
the many substance abuse disorders, we 
concluded that nurses' problems with 
substance abuse are, to say the least, 

Equal attention is now being given to 
dentists and pharmacists. Though the 
incidence of substance abuse disorders 
among dentists may be no less a problem 
than for other health care professionals, 
the extent of the problem again is hard 
to gauge. A staff article in a 1982 issue 
of the journal of the American Dental 
Association, which employed a decidedly 
conservative approach to its calcula- 
tions, concluded that 10 percent or 
about 9,000 dentists nationwide are 
alcoholic. The authors then speculated 
that the actual percentage and number 
of alcohol-impaired dentists probably far 
exceeded the figures given. With other 
drugs taken into account, dentists may 
have a high rate of dependency as do 
others in health care, though no one can 
be certain. 

In 1982, Svetlana Lerner suggested 
that alcoholism represented the "single 
largest cause of impairment and disabil- 
ity within the pharmacy profession." 
Estimates on the extent of substance 
abuse amt)ng pharmacists, she noted, 
resembled those for physicians and 
nurses. However, the author found no 
specific figures published on either 
alcohol or drug impairment among 

The paucity of data, alone, raises hard 
questions. Why does so little substantive 




information exist in fields known for 
precise measurement, for epidemiologi- 
cal inquiry, for sophisticated levels of 
professional association? And why are 
health care professionals more prone, as 
the data available seem to suggest, to 
develop substance abuse disorders than 
are those in the general population? 
Even the most meager of figures raises a 
formidable issue. Those wht) treat 
substance abuse disorders have begun to 
ascertain some of the factors that may 
account for the rate of impairment in 
the health professions. 

The rigors of professional schooling 
are offered as one factor. The average 
medical student today may spend 50-55 
hours per week in classroom, clinical, 
and study situations, in addition to 
weekend hours. Other possible factors 
include the pressure and long hours of 
practice, and the personal consequences 
of such a lifestyle. The average physician 
in private practice may work 55 hours 
per week. Many physicians work far 

The possession of certain personality 
traits may also explain why some health 
care professionals are at higher than 
average risk of developing the disorder. 
Thomas G. Webster, in The Impaired 
Physician, cites personality as one of 
many factors, noting that certain char- 
acteristics may have been present in 
individuals considering health care as a 
career before they entered professional 

Regardless of such factors — some of 
which many professions share — a major 
consideration in explaining the rate of 
substance abuse m health care profes- 
sions is simply contact with the drugs. 
As with many diseases, the probability 
of developing a substance abuse disorder 
increases with accessibility to the drugs 
of potential abuse. Gerald P. Johnson, 
in his article "Case History: Dangers of 
Self-Prescription," suggested that con- 
tinuous contact with drugs was a crucial 
factor in explaining the difference in the 
rate of substance abuse disorders between 
health care professionals and others. Use 
of drugs may have begun as a form of 
recreation or been the result of self- 

' prescription for pain or illness. But 
regardless of initial motives for use, 
continued exposure is considered a key 
condition leading to ultimate 

The stigma the profession has at- 
tached to its own impaired colleagues 
may help account for the lack of hard 
data and has been a stumbling block to 
specialists in the field of substance abuse 
medicine. Despite developments in 
treatment, many impaired health care 
professionals are afraid to come forth, 
anticipating being ostracized by their 
associates if their problem were known. 
While many impaired health care profes- 
sionals are reluctant to disclose their 
problem, colleagues may avoid confront- 
ing other colleagues who display obvious 
symptoms of substance impairment. 
Commenting on this reluctance in the 
Journal of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, Roland E. Herrington and George 
R. Jacobson stated, "We do our patients, 
our professions, and our troubled col- 
leagues no favor by pretending not to see 
that which is so prevalent today." 

James Shafer, a general practice physi- 
cian, was 37 years old when he contacted a 
psychiatrist for consultation. At the time of 
the first phime cimtact, he stated that he was 
having problems with his busy practice and 
needed help m making a career decisum. 
Although he reported problems with anxiety 
and difficulty sleeping at times, he felt these 
symptoms were temporary and manageable. 
An appointment was made for him to be 
seen a few days later. 

When he was first seen, he seemed older 
than his stated age; he also was anxious and 
somewhat tremulous. He reported having 
spent most of the previous evening in the 
emergency room of his hospital taking care 
of a woman with a difficult pregnancy. With 
some pride, he described m great detail the 
successful management of his patient. He 
then discussed the many rewards of his 
career in medicine, the greatest for him 
being the appreciation expressed by individ- 
mil patients and the community as a whole. 
He hoped he would eventually find a 
practice that would provide such rewards 
while allowing him more time to develop and 
pursue his personal interests. Currently, be- 
cause he was one oj only a jew physicians in 
his rural Virginia town, he rarely had a day 
that he did not see patients in his office or in 
the hospital. In fact, James had not spent a 
weekend away from his practice during the 
six months prior to his coiisultation. 

He attended college and medical school in 
the Northeast. Although he had some 
academic difficulties during medical school, 
he had been accepted for a general surgery 
residency at the same school. But he was 
dropped from the program after two years 
because of what he described as "marital 
and persorw.1 problems." He felt his dismis- 
sal was unfair, noting that prior to his 
marital separation and subsequent divorce, 
he worked "harder and hmger" than any of 
the other trainees. 

He moved to the Southwest where he 
worked as a civil service physician on a 
military base. Again, after a few years, 
"persimality problems" arose between 
himself and hospital administrators. He 
believed the major conflict in that positum 
was his nimmilitary siatiis and, thus, 
difficulties in communicating with his 
supervisors. When asked for details, he 
stated he was asked to resign because on a 
few occasions, he failed to respond or was 
not at home on weekends when he thought 
he was not officially on call. He denied that 
emotional difficulties were related to either 
of his forced moves, other than frustrations 
around his financial situation and a feeling 
of not being understood by his coworkers. 

He then came to Virginia and joined two 
older physicians in his present practice. He 
was quite happy for several years and 
apparently did well in his work and in his 
personal life. He became active in his 
regional medical society and other commu- 
nity activities and had an active social life. 
He remained single during this time. He 
was known as an avid sportsman by his 
peers, and he developed an interest in local 
folk art and gourmet cooking. Although 
seen as somewhat of an eccentric by many 
of his patients, he could be depended on to 
respimd to any crisis or emergency. 

James reported that life had changed over 
the previous two years. Because of an 
increase m his clinical respimsibilities as his 
partners aged, he was not able to participate 
as often in his usual leisure-time activities. 
More of his time was spent taking calls 
either at home or in the hospital's emergency 
room. Occasionally, over the last year, he 
had made mistakes in his written orders or 
treatment plans because of chronic fatigue. 
But he said his nurse found them to be 
minor and usually corrected them fin him. 
In an attempt to conserve his lime and 


energy, he increasingly managed patients' 
night-time problems from home by phone 
rather than making the 12 -mile trip to the 
hospital. First the hospital, then the medical 
society, questi(med some of his practices, but 
neither made an official reprimand or took 
other actiim. It was this pressure that was 
causing his current anxiety, leading him to 
cimsider a career change in the near future. 

When asked about eating and drinking 
habits, he described himself as a social 
drinker with erratic eating habits. He based 
this behavior on his single status, noting that 
he usually ate ahme after cooking for 
himself. With probing, he reported that he 
was drinking a little more than he was 
accustomed to doing in the past. In resp<mse 
to more specific questums, he staled that he 
occasionally had a few drinks in the morn- 
ing to help him get to sleep after hiiving been 
up all night. He usually did not drink while 
on duty uniess he did not expect any further 
calls m the evening. He woidd usually hiwe 
wine with his meals and drank sherry 
through the evening while reading or watch- 
ing movies on television. He often drank too 
much when he went out unth friends or had 
visitors. He /e(t it was his work habits, 
rather than his drinking habits, that led to 
his current social situation, but he was able 
to admit that he was somewhat abrasive 
when drinking and had alienated more than 
a few of his friends. James demed that 
drinking was negatively affecting his work; 
rather, his use of alcohol was a positive 
factor in his being able to "switch gears" as 
he was called on to do so often. He also felt 
it was an appropriate way "to keep fr<m\ 
carrying too many people around on my 

The evident denial in this case pre- 
vails throughout the pri)fessit)n. Learn- 
ing the extent of the problem is crucial 
to coming up with a comprehensive plan 
to ameliorate it, and an interprofessional 
research effort must he undertaken. In 
the meantime, help is available tor 
impaired health care professionals. It is 
patently clear that such individuals, 
once involved in treatment, respond 
well to therapy. For health care profes- 
sionals (as tor all others), substance 
abuse is usually chronic with patterns of 
relapse. However, the chairman of the 

American Medical Association's Im- 
paired Physicians Advisory Committee 
has observed, "The great majority of 
physicians who complete rehabilitation 
programs can successfully return to the 
practice of medicine." 

Clinical observations at the MCV 
Hospitals Division of Substance Abuse 
Medicine bear out this assessment, not 
only for physicians but tor nurses, phar- 
macists, and others in health care. The 
problem of substance abuse, which is 
extensive and particularly troublesome 
for members of this unique population, 
requires research, but help for the prob- 
lem is currently available. 

A counselor from a local substance abuse 
counseling program referred a 29 -year -old 
nurse for outpatient therapy. Barbara Green 
was then in her second week of inpatient 
substance abuse treatment. She and her 
counselor were looking for an alternative to 
residential treatment that would provide 
support and therapeutic guidance. It was 
decided her treatment would include weekly 
psychotherapy with random monitoring by 
drug screening tests. 

Barbara gave a history of using alcohol, 
manfiuina, and "pills" occasionally during 
high school and early in college. At that time 
she realized that her drug use, while not 
problematic for her, was incompatible with 
maintaining excellent grades. She stopped 
using the drugs with no difficidty and drank 
alcohol (mly once or twice a mimth. She 
completed nursing school near the top of her 
class and was hired by a major medical 
center as an intensife care nurse. 

She fournl her job exceedingly stressftd 
but always exciting and challenging. She 
demmstrated a high degree of technical skill 
in the management of critically ill patients 
and was known for her "cool head" m the 
midst of a crisis. As a result of her perform- 
ance on this job, she ivas mimed Nurse of 
the Year by the department. 

Barbara developed many relationships 
during her first years out of nursing school. 
With more leisure time and sigr-iificantly 
more discretumary income, she began 
recreational use of cocaine with her room- 
mate and other friends a few times each 
month. She felt the time spent with friends 
was crucial to maintaining balance in her 
life. "After watching so many of our 
patients go, I have to live it up to keep my 
sanity." She rationalized that in the begin- 
ning of her cocaine use, she never had 
problems with the drug or her behavioral 

response to it. She admitted, however, that 
her credit rating went down because of tu>o 
closed bank card accounts and arrears on 
other bills, but she did not see these prob- 
lems as drug reLited. 

At times, when she had to work after a 
night of heavy cocaine use, she would take 
one or two Valium tablets to calm herself 
and improve her c(jncentration. She nei'er 
differentiated between this medicine and the 
aspirins or antacids that she and other 
members of the ward staff would take from 
the medication cart; in fact, many saw this 
medication as .somewhat a benefit of the job. 
Although others found her irritable on such 
days, they always rationalized her mood as 
a response to the heavy load she and the 
other nurses carried. No (me at work 
suspected that her mood swings were related 
to psychoactive drug use, nor did anyone 
fault her for losing her temper occasionally 
with coworkers. 

What was noticed was a significant 
detenoratiim in her patient care style. In her 
first years on the unit, Barbara had spent 
the majority of her time providing supportive 
and empathetic bedside care. This changed 
as she progressed and took on additiottal 
administrative responsibilities. Increasingly, 
she distanced herself from patients. Most of 
her working hours were spent with schedul- 
ing, recordkeeping, charting patient data, 
rei'ising regulations, and attending hospital 
committee meetings. She complained of 
missing the "personal side of nursing" but 
often was abrupt and hostile when called on 
to work outside the intensii'e care unit with 
less critically ill patients. "I found that I had 
fallen out of love with patients and could 
barely tolerate spending eight hours with 

When she ivas 27 years old. Barbara 
injured her knee while skiing. She returned 
to work after a week, although at times she 
experienced a great deal of pain. She felt she 
could not afford to be out of work: h\ this 
time, her financial sitiuuiim was dismal. She 
also was plagued with headaches that would 
occur late in her shifts at work, and her use 
of minor tranquilizers became the rule rather 
than the exception. In addition, she began to 
use increasing amounts of ruircotic analgesic 
medications to control pain. She usiuilly was 

able to gel prescriptions for medications 
from physicians ivorkmg with her. They 
knew of the daily pressures she faced and 
empathized with her as she tried to 
her life. On one occasion she visited her 
hospital's employee health office, where she 
was seen by the nurse, given a prescription 
for an analgesic available over-the-counter, 
and encouraged to consider a less stressful 
job. She decided to give up her supervisory 
position in intensive care and transferred to 
the hospital's emergency room. 

One year prior to being referred for 
psychotherapy, Barbara had become depen- 
dent on both Demerol (a potent narcotic 
analgesic) and Valium. She found that when 
she could not get the medicines, she became 
anxious, could not sleep or eat well, and 
had poor concentration. B;y this time, those 
around her noticed changes in her appear- 
ance and behavior, but no (me felt compe- 
tent to confront or counsel her. Barbara 
herself recognized that life was unmanage- 
able and that she had to discontinue the use 
of the medications. She tried to taper her 
daily dosage but became even more 

She asked for and was granted a leave of 
absence. Her supervisor told her they all 
hoped she would return as her old self. But 
she worried that she might not be able to 
stop the drug use completely. Not wanting 
to let others know how much she was now 
taking, Barbara began writing prescriptions 
for the medicati(ms herself, forging the name 
of one of the emergency room physicians. 

Several days into her leave, her room- 
mate found her in their apartment sedated 
and somewhat c(mfused. Apparently, she 
had either had a seizure or taken an over- 
dose of medications. She was taken to 
another hospital, where she was cimfused 
and disoriented, but otherwise stable. After 
a brief period of observatum, she was 
released. She was encouraged to have a 
psychiatric evaluation but refused. 

The day after this incident, Bar/Lara's 
hospital administrator and supervisor came 
to her apartment. They ccmfronted her with 
the forged prescriptions and told her oj their 
responsibility to report the incident to the 
state nursing and pharmacy boards. They 
also told her that legal charges could be 
brought against her. They brought with them 

the names of the head of the nursing board's 
Impaired Nurse Committee and a physician 
who specialized in tfie treatment of sub- 
stance abuse disorders. With their strong 
encouragement, she decided to contact the 
physician, who then arranged for her 
admission to residential treatment. 

After a period of detoxification, Barbara 
felt less anxious and could see improvement 
in her concentration. As her thinking 
cleared, though, she became quite depressed. 
She realized the seriousness of her situation, 
especially in regard to the widespread effects 
of her drug use on all aspects of her life. She 
was gratified by the support of her supervi- 
sor, who assured her that a position would 
be found for her when she was ready to 
return to work. 

During the next year, Barbara went 
weekly for supportive psychotherapy and 
substance abuse counseling. She used her 
intelligence and problem- solving abilities to 
work collaboratively with the therapists on 
several important areas of her life. The first 
difficult task was a decision not to return to 
nursing too soon because of the obvious 
risks the profession had presented in the 
past. She knew it would be difficult to 
support herself outside the health care field 
but felt It would be eqiuilly difficult to 
abstain from drugs if she placed herself back 
under the pressures that had led to her 
impairment. Because of her education and 
experience, she was able to get a job as a 
laboratory technician and supplement her 
salary with temporary, part-time clerical 
work. She made plans and a schedule to 
bring her finances under control and learned 
to accept a slightly lower standard of lii'ing. 

just as she began to pull out of her 
despair and regain a sense of hope, she was 
officially infinmed by the state licensing 
board that her license had been suspended 
for SIX months. A hearing was scheduled 
several mimths Liter to determine her 
readiness to return to nursing. Depression 
returned briefly, but she cimtinued to work 
on her recovery and improve the quality of 
her life. She found new leisure-time activi- 
ties that provided her opportunities to 
develop new relationships away from her 
job. She also began taking graduate courses 
outside nursing and cimsidered pursuing a 
degree in another field. 

She was able to see that she had expected 
too much from her professum. Now that she 
was not overly invested in nursing on an 
emotiimal level, she could better delineate 
the reastms for her career choice and renew 
that choice. She made returning tr) nursing a 

specific goal of treatment and abstinence 
from drugs and ccmtinued involt'emeni in 
counseling the means of achieving that goal. 

Barbara did well as the year progressed. 
She remained drug free and enjoyed excel- 
lent performance on her jobs. After the 
bi)ard hearing, she was given permissum to 
resume her nursing career under the condi- 
tion that she continue counseling and 
abstain from drugs. Eight months into 
treatment, she went back to nursing on a 
part-time basis while continuing her weekly 
counseling sessions. She was able to look 
anew at the issues raised by her return to 
bedside nursing and how her feelings, 
especially those of dependency and auton- 
omy, at times made her job difficult. As she 
gained insight into these problems, she 
became more effective in dealing with her 
patients and communicating with coworkers 
and friends. She was eventually able to 
resume nursing on a full-time basis. She 
discontinued individual counseling after one 
year and joined a mutiud support group, 
which included am(mg its members several 
other recovering health care professionals. 
She regained her full licensure after an 
additional year in counseling and continued 
to do well, never returning to drug use 
during that time. 

This case exemplifies how well many 
health care professionals respond to 
therapy. The prohlem is that, compared 
to the general population affected hy 
substance abuse disorders, health care 
professionals usually seek help late in the 
progression of the illness. Recognizing 
the problem in its early stages is difficult 
for those on their way to becoming 
impaired as well as for those who work 
with them. 

We know that substance abuse is a 
function of several elements, including 
the amount of psychoactive substance 
taken in a given period of time, the 
situation in which the substance is used, 
and the physical and psychological 
makeup of the individual using the 
substance. But these elements interact in 
ways that make impairment difficult to 
predict or identify on an individual 


basis. Furthermore, every use of a psy- 
choactive substance does not necessarily 
impair the user, making it equally hard 
to discern between use, misuse, and 
abuse. The person who occasit)nally 
drinks before coming to work or who 
depends on stimulants to get through a 
1 1-7 shift may not behave suspiciously. 
Or if a coworker notices a change in 
behavior and recognizes it as related to 
substance abuse, the potential abuser 
may deny it by passing it off as an iso- 
lated incident or by accusing the col- 
league of being an alarmist. Of course, 
when an impaired, chronic substance 
abuser continually arrives to work intox- 
icated or is discovered taking drugs 
intraveneously, associates can no longer 
ignore the fact. At this late stage in the 
progression of the disorder, the substance 
abuser may no longer be able to function. 

It is essential for those of us in the 
health care professions to assist one 
another by leading impaired colleagues, 
regardless of the stage of the disorder, 
into treatment. If individuals intervened 
in a timely manner, if the profession as a 
whole accepted the problem of substance 
abuse impairment as a treatable disorder, 
and if regulatory boards consistently 
took a balanced approach to the prob- 
lem, the expectations for a favorable 
outcome would be even greater for this 
population than they already are. \i 

Reference list available on request from 
VCU Publications. 

Anthony }. DeLellis, Ed. D. , is assistant 
director of the MCVH Division of Sub- 
stance Abuse Medicine and assistant 
professor of health administration. 
Ronald O. Forbes, M.D. , is associate 
director of the division and assistant profes- 
sor of psychiatry. 

Photography by Dennis McWaters. 

Since 1980, approximately 50 physi- 
cians, nurses, pharmacists, and other 
health care professionals have been 
treated in the MCVH Division of Sub- 
stance Abuse Medicine. Although 
hospitalization has been necessary for a 
few of these patients, most health care 
professionals treated by the division have 
been outpatients. 

After these patients underwent long- 
term medical treatment, the majority 
were able to return to their professions, 
both those who were obliged to get help 
by state regulatory boards or employers 
and those who sought treatment volun- 
tarily. A few patients have found contin- 
ued professional practice impossible in 
the short run and even fewer in the long 
run. However, most were able to con- 
tinue their careers. 

Research and training related to the 
treatment of impaired health care profes- 
sionals are growing aspects of the work 
of the division. An advantage to the 
research is that many health care profes- 
sionals, by virtue of their training, are 
able to describe the development of their 
substance abuse problem in great detail. 
As a result, their recollections provide a 
significant body of information with 
which to study the onset and progression 
of the disorder, from its acute to chronic 

The division has developed a proposal 
to establish a fellowship. This trainmg 
program will prepare a physician to treat 
health care professionals for substance 
abuse, provide training in prescription 
writing practices to reduce treatment- 
related addiction in patients (iatrogenic 
addiction), and address the many regula- 
tory and legal issues related to both 
substance impaired health care profes- 
sionals and the matter of iatrogenic 

Clinical work is another important 
responsibility of the division. In addition 
to the treatment of impaired health care 
professionals, staff provide about 8,700 
patient days of general inpatient treat- 
ment annually. The Outpatient Program 

has an average roster of 50 to 65 patients 
and the Partial Hospitalization Unit 
treats from 15 to 20 patients daily. The 
division's physicians also provide consul- 
tation to other units in MCV Hospitals. 
The division is a primary care unit for 
central Virginia and a tertiary care unit 
for the entire state and much of the 

As one of only a few substance abuse 
medicine units in the nation located in a 
university teaching hospital, the division 
stresses education and training. Since 
1982, approximately 40 internal medi- 
cine and five psychiatry residents have 
trained in the division. Medical students 
and graduate and undergraduate social 
work students also routinely take advan- 
tage of the division's training opportuni- 
ties. Monthly medical conferences are 
open to residents, nurses, administrators, 
pharmacists, physicians, and others in 
the university community, as well as to 
personnel in community and state 
agencies and area hospitals. 

The division is led by William D. 
Lerner, M.D., director and associate 
professor of internal medicine, and 
Ronald O. Forbes, M.D., associate 
director and assistant professor of psychi- 
atry. Clinical social workers, nurses, and 
a rehabilitation counselor — all with 
special skills in substance abuse treat- 
ment — work with the physicians in 
providing care. 



By Samuel Craver 

bservers of the 
skyline of Rich- 
mond, Virginia, 
may note an 
unobtrusive struc- 
ture on the corner 
of Marshall and 
Capitol Streets. 
Cast in a large 
bronze plaque on the Marshall Street 
face of the building are the words "Vir- 
ginia Mechanics' Institute," the building 
now serving VCU's Medical College ot 
Virginia Campus. To a student of the 
history of the city and region, the words 
bring to mind an earlier time in the 
closing decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury when sectional passions ran high 
and the hope in a new industrial future 
was manifest in the code words "New 
South." A key element in this hope was 
the development of that class of society 
known as mechanics — the skilled arti- 
sans and craftsmen who made the ma- 
chines, techniques, and processes ot 
industry function. 

The present structure was built in 
1925, but the history of the institution it 
once served runs back to the antebellum 
South, a period usually associated with 
agrarianism. The Virginia Mechanics' 
Institute stood, even in that day, for 
industrial and technological progress in 
the South. The Institute was originally 
founded in 1854, amid the growing 
industrial strength of Richmond. The 
gathering clouds of the Civil War, 
however, were to overwhelm the fledg- 
ling institution, for in 1861, its property 
was taken over by the War and Navy 
Departments of the Confederate govern- 
ment, and classes were suspended. By 
1865, the fate of the Confederacy was 
sealed and, in the evacuation of Rich- 
mond, Institute property was burned to 
the ground. Shortly thereafter, the real 

estate was sold to satisfy debts, and the 
Virginia Mechanics' Institute passed 
from the scene. 

Nevertheless, the memory of the 
Institute survived, particularly in the 
mind of a young former schoolteacher, 
rising attorney, and scion ot an old 
Virginia family — Lyon Gardiner Tyler, 
son of John Tyler, tenth president ot the 
United States. Tyler and a friend and 
professional colleague, Overton Howard, 
decided to try to resurrect the Mechan- 
ics' Institute. They settled on a plan of 
opening a "Night School of Technology" 
to be offered tree of charge to all yitung 
men who could not afford to pay for an 
education. On October 3, 1884, the 
Night School was opened, and tree 
courses were offered in mechanical 
drawing, mathematics, architectural 
drawing, and bookkeeping. By Decem- 
ber, there were 1 1 7 students and a 
faculty of five, among them Tyler and 

In the meantime, interest in reviving 
the defunct Mechanics' Institute had 
increased, and on December 5, 1884, a 
meeting was held by Tyler and the other 
faculty, attended by "professional men, 
merchants, and mechanics." Lewis 
Ginter, a co-founder of the American 
Tobacco Ct)mpany and reportedly the 
richest man in Virginia, was one 
supporter. Thomas Nelson Page, a 
leading figure in the Lost Cause genre of 
American literature, which glorified the 
Old South and heroic Confederates, was 
another. They formed an association to 
establish a mechanics' institute "adapted 
to the requirements of the industrial 
classes." By January 20, 1885, the group 
had adopted a constitution and by-laws, 
elected officers and a board ot managers, 
and by March 17, they had secured 
funding from the Richmond City Coun- 
cil to pay the expenses of the Night 
School. The Virginia Mechanics' Insti- 
tute was back in business. 

Why was there such a broad interest 
in such a lowly concern as adult indus- 
trial education, particularly in a state 
noted for a proud aristocratic tradition 
and strong class divisions? Thomas 
Nelson Page wrote that class feeling in 
Virginia was "stronger than existed 

ViH(;iNiA Mklhanics Insii ruiK — Fkek-Hand 


anywhere else on this side of the water, 
unless It was South Carolina." But it is 
important to recognize that while the 
times were hard, the South was begin- 
ning to pull out from under the ravages 
of the recent war. 

Page tt>ld how pt)verty-stricken young 
men, "supposed to be the proudest in the 
land," poured intt) the towns and cities, 
looking to supptirt themselves and their 
dependents, "engaging in the work t>f 
laborers and losing no caste by it." At 
least two developments help explain this 
phenomenon and the heightened inter- 
est in the education of industrial work- 
ers. One was a growing economic bt)om 
which, albeit short-lived, was to bolster 
petiple's confidence in the future, and 
the other was the New South ideology of 
industrial and economic progress. 


By the early 1880s, the country was 
coming t)ut ot the economic dtildrums ot 
the previous decade. Virginia, and 
particularly Richmond, experienced a 
burst of economic growth. Michael 
Chesson, in his recent hook, Richmond 
After the War. 1865-1890. describes the 
city in the early 1880s as "frenetic" and 
"roaring with progress." Business, indus- 
try, and labor unions flourished. The 
city went on a large street and sewer 
improvement program, installed the 
country's third telephone system, and 
built a large electric street car system. It 
advertised its progress to the world with 
a great exposition in 1888, where the 
crowds numbered as many as 30,000 a 
day, and it published a commemorative 
volume of the event entitled Richmond, 
Virginia, and the New South. Thus, 
Richmond embraced industrial progress 
and the New South ideology with zeal in 
the heady decade ot the 1880s. 

But in 1893, a serious financial panic 
hit the country, and the resulting de- 
pression caused unemployment and 
bankruptcies in Richmond tor years. 
This had detrimental although not fatal 
effects on the Virginia Mechanics' 
Institute, but recovery would not fully 
come until the turn of the century. 

Among the mechanics involved in the 
refounding, and the new Institute's first 
president, was George A. Ainslie, a 
carnage maker. The first vice-president 
was a manufacturer ot farm implements. 
The other founders included a printer 

and manufacturer of ledgers, a manufac- 
turer of window sashes, a leader in 
Richmond's lumber industry, an engi- 
neer at the Tredegar Iron Works, and an 
architect. These men, who embraced 
New South industrialism, represented 
the leadership of the new Institute 
during its formative years and indicate 

the kinds ot influences brought to bear 
on Institute policies and programs. 

The New South ideology was based 
partly on tact and partly on wishful 
thinking and myth. Certainly many 
Southerners genuinely wanted industri- 
alization to come to the South, but there 
were also those who felt that if the 
mdustrial North had defeated them on 
the battlefield, they would in turn 
embrace industrialism with a vengeance 
and finally beat the Yankees at their own 
game. And so the New South was 

fatefully intertwined with the old; At 
the same time Southerners embraced 
Yankee industrialism, they built shrines 
to Confederate heroes and glorified a 
mythical Old South in literature and 

There was irt^iny in the way the ideol- 
ogy influenced the city and the region. If 
Richmond sought to he a New South 
leader with new industries and smoke- 
stacks changing its skyline, it also wel- 
comed the thousands ot contributions 
that poured in from all over the South to 
erect a statue to the memory ot Robert 
E. Lee, the first of many statues of 
Confederate heroes to dot the landscape 
and eventually to give a major new 
thoroughfare. Monument Avenue, its 
name. It Page helped retound the Vir- 
ginia Mechanics' Institute as a symbol of 
New South industrialism, he made a 
name for himself as a writer ot novels 
and short stories about the Old South as 
well. Literary critic Edmund Wilson said 
of Page that he really invented for the 
popular mind, both North and South, a 
vision of the plantation with genteel 
white ladies and gentlemen and their 
"dusky-skinned adoring retainers." 
Northerners, after the bloody confronta- 
tion of the Civil War, "illogically found 
it soothing to be told that slavery had 
not been so bad, that the Negroes were a 
lovable but simple race, whose business 
it was to work for the whites." Finally, if 
around the dinner table and at family 
gatherings the young were told to go out 

'^^i B. 

Virginia Mkchahios Institctk— Mechanical Drawing. 


into the New South world to make their 
fortunes, they were also regaled in those 
same meetings with stirring tales of what 
it was like in the Old South, and of the 
valor and derring-do of kinsmen and 
other Confederate heroes during "The 
War." In short, a counterhalance devel- 
oped, a mentality estahlished among 
white Southerners to "never forget," an 
outlook that was to complicate the 
South's social, political, and economic 
life for generations to come, particularly 
in the area of race relations. 

However, the New South was not a 
totally southern invention. In 1882, the 
New York-based Century Magazine 
boosted a New South image of southern 
youth, some from the old families and 
many from the middle and lower classes, 
for whom post-war poverty and the 
promise of great success in industrializa- 
tion were goads. Many Southerners 
needed no prodding, but the message 
was nevertheless trumpeted from edito- 
rial page and pulpit. Henry Grady, the 
Georgian journalist, wrote eloquently of 
a New South "thrilling with the con- 
sciousness of growing power and prosper- 
ity." A North Carolina evangelist 
preached to his congregation that "the 
establishment of a cotton mill would be 
the most Christian act" his listeners 
could perform. At the resurrected Me- 
chanics' Institute, the message was 
drilled into students and supporters 
alike. If the old order had stood for 
artistocrats and agrarianism, the new 
stood for the urban middle class and 
industrialism with a peculiarly southern 
twist. Educational institutions reflect the 
larger society that creates and supports 
them. At the Institute the ambiguity 
surrounding New South notions of 
progress centered, on the one hand, in 
the effort to uplift the industrial classes 
and, on the other, to maintain privilege 
and class distinction. Not surprisingly, 
the most glaring evidence of these beliefs 
was the total exclusion of black indus- 
trial workers from the Institute, workers 
who made up a significant portion of 
Richmond's population and industrial 
labor force. 

The marriage of New South industri- 
alism and sectional pride was found in 

Corner of the Machine Shop. 

Vice-President Ashton Starke's reminder 
to Institute students in 1889: 

The day is coming when the ques- 
tion will arise as to who will take 
charge of these factories and fur- 
naces that are going to be built. 
Will it be men from across the seas 
or from the North or West.' God 
forbid. We are glad to welcome all, 
but let Virginia boys bring to them- 
selves fortunes and names that will 
live as monuments to their memory. 

By the 1890s, the sectional rhetoric had 
toned down, but the message to industri- 
alize remained. "Every engine that drives 

Automobile Mechanics' Laboratory. 

and every wheel that turns in the vast 
machinery ot our industries should be 
home-made," F. H. Richardson, editor 
ot the Atlanta Jourmi/, told the assem- 
bled students in 1891. Guest speaker R. 
H. Thurstone, head of Silbey College at 
Cornell University, assured Institute 
students in 1894 that a new day was 
dawning, "the Era of Science Applied to 
the Arts." 

At the Mechanics' Institute, a New 
South type of class consciousness was 
part of the message. The Institute's 
constitution stated that the objectives 
"shall be the promotion and encourage- 
ment of manufactures, the Mechanic 
and Useful Arts, and the mental and 
social improvement ot the industrial 
classes." Treasurer W. E. Simons claimed 
that the chief object of the Institute was 
"to provide the means of education to a 
large class of boys — our apprentices — 
who are compelled to work in the day- 
time and have no means of obtaining an 

education except from a night school." 
President Ainslie described the students 
as young men who had to work for their 
own and their families' support, and one 
mission of the Institute was to help these 
students reach higher levels of knowl- 
edge and scientific achievement. The 
board took considerable care in choosing 
speakers who would highlight Institute 
objectives and inspire students. The 
speaker for the annual closing exercises 
on May 16, 1899, was Rabbi Edward N. 
Calish, whose address was subsequently 

The room in which Practical Electrical 
Wiring is taught. 

published and distributed by the Insti- 
tute. In Calish 's words, the work of the 
Institute was of inestimable value be- 
cause it aimed to reach "the middle or 
industrial class," the one that "bears the 
burdens of society," and upon "whose 
sturdy shoulders rests the world of organ- 
ized human society." 

The Institute's educational program 
was organized around the Night School, 
periodic lectures and exhibitions, and 
the Institute library. Of these programs, 
the Night School was by far the most 
important. Starting with five instructors 
and four course offerings in the fall of 
1884, the Night School grew to 24 
faculty, 1 5 subject areas, and 36 course 

The Blacksmith Shop. 

offerings by 1903. The basic curriculum 
was established by the 1887-88 term 
around arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
electricity, physics, and engineering. 
These subjects served as the core curric- 
ulum throughout the period, with the 


»•" " i„. > 


Tfl 1« 

addition of industrial modeling in 1890, 
woodcarving in 1895, English in 1897, 
and analytical geometry and differential 
calculus in 1902. 

From its beginnings, the Institute was 
hampered by the inadequate background 
preparation of the students. Little is said 
about the personal circumstances of 
students in the official records of the 
Institute; however, they varied in age, 
background preparation, ability, and 
capacity to stay with their studies while 
maintaining daytime jobs. Practically all 
of the students were fatigued aftet work- 
ing all day. Basic was a desire to help 
them pursue higher studies than taught 
in the public schools, but throughout 
the period, remedial courses had to be 
offered to make up for student deficien- 
cies, particularly in mathematics. 

The depression from 1893 to 1899 was 
especially difficult, and there was an 
accompanying decline in funding, 
enrollment, and educational services. 
Frequent requests were made from 
students for withdrawal because of loss of 
jobs and other economic hardships. 
Some wanted a refund of membership 
dues, which, though only $3 a year, 
became a luxury many students could ill 
afford. The Institute tried to get state 
financial aid throughout the period but 
never succeeded. City appropriations 
were reduced during the depression and 
were not fully restored until 1900. 

During most of its first 20 years, the 
Institute had existed in inadequate 
rented facilities, but in 1901, it moved 
to new quarters at 1014-1016 East Main 
Street, with the help of a large bequest 
from the estate of Lewis Ginter and 
contributions of many local citizens. By 
1904, the end of its revival, the Virginia 
Mechanics' Institute had become an 
established fixture in the educational, 
economic, and social life of the area. 

Over the coming years it would grow 
and change. It would move to the more 
expansive headquarters on the corner of 
Marshall and Capitol Streets in 1925, 
and in 1942, its board would be dis- 
solved and the Institute would come 
under the control of the Richmond 
public schools. With this merger, the 
clientele would change to include day- 
time high school students. In 1966, its 
name would be changed to the Rich- 
mond Technical Center, and this new 
entity would move to its present location 
on Westwood Avenue. In tandem with 
its physical relocation and expansion of 
service, the old barriers of race, so 
consciously maintained in an earlier 
time, would slowly be torn down. 

There was no scarcity of rhetoric in 
the New South ideology, and the practi- 
cal effects often fell short of expecta- 
tions. But the 1885 revival of the Vir- 
ginia Mechanics' Institute was one 
tangible result. Today, its successor, the 
Richmond Technical Center, conducts 
day classes for high school students and 
continues to operate night classes for 
working adults, enrolling over 2,400 
students in the current term. It remains, 
more than ever, an important ingredient 
in the educational, economic, and social 
life of the community. S 

A Town House. 


Samuel Craver, Ph. D. , is associate profes- 
sor of educational studies, adult and voca- 
tional/technical education at the university. 

Photographs courtesy oj the Teachers' 
Resource Workshop, VCU School of 

r --n._ 

gj l". L II JI ITir rrri h rj 

Sdc EJ^EVApoH or BAC^ suildiNc 

LOfJcmjcwW. Scc-porJ OH Aa. 
ViBoniA lt>cBA.BicB iRvriTUTi— ABoarrtcru&AL Dbawiko. 






By Cynthia McMullen 

An eight'year-old child screams with pain, 
her leg bleeding profusely. On the ivay to 
the hospital, where she will need over 20 
stitches to close the gaping wound, her 
father talks calmly to her. "Think of some- 
thing you enjoy domg," he says. "Think of 
something pleasant. " 

Later, the girl's mother asks whether the 
procedure was very painful. "What do you 
mean?" the child cries. "/ ivasn't even 

Her mother is con/used. "Well, where 
were you, honey!" 

"You know," the child answers patiently, 
forgiving her mother's seeming lapse in 
memory. "/ was at Nag's Head, picking up 
shells off the beach." 

A scene frum the Twilight Zone? N», 
says Dr. Winfred O. Ward, this is just a 
typical example of the positive power ot 
hypnosis. The injured child, Ward's 
daughter, is now a 23-year-old student 
pursuing her master's degree at VCU. 
Using hypnosis as an anesthetic or to 
promote relaxation was common to 
Ward's early medical practice and, he 
says, his daughter has always heen "a 
very good subject." 

Ward, who received his M.D. degree 
from the Medical College of Virginia in 
1958, decided after nine years of family 
practice that he wanted to return to 
school to concentrate on psychosomatic 
medicine. Though no formal residency 
was available in that field, he received 
his training through studies in London 
and at Columbia University and the 
Universities of Pennsylvania, Georgia, 
and California. 

Returning to Richmond, Ward 
established his present practice, one in 
which he uses hypnosis in treating 
about 75 percent of his patients. 
One of just several hundred 
hypnoanalysts in the United States, 
Ward says more and more doctors 
are using hypnosis in varying degrees, 
though few use it to the extent he has 
during the past 12 years. 

Ward stresses that he uses hypnosis 
only in combination with general ther- 
apy to treat a variety of problems from 
stress, migraine headaches, and irritable 
bowel disease to neurotic disorders and 
obesity. He compares treatment by 
hypnoanalysis to a physician using a 
hypodermic needle to administer medi- 
cine. Hypnosis is the syringe; it's merely 
the tool, or vehicle, through which 
treatment is provided. 

"Believe me," he says, "there's no 
miracle associated with hypnosis." And 
yet it does seem to work, again and 
again. However, warns Ward, "The 


'■^f' I ' !■' 


ability to be in hypnosis is a gift, but it 
can be a danget as well." As is ttue ot 
any medical treatment, it works best 
when applied by someone who has been 
properly trained and who knows when 
and when not to use it. 

Asked about the skepticism with 
which some medical practitioners must 
view his work, Ward says that the 
majority ot his patients are referred to 
him by other physicians. "In tact," he 
says, "I find it a real compliment that 
many physicians have asked me to treat 
members of their own families and even 
themselves." Many of thcise same physi- 
cians, impressed with the results, have 
begun to incorporate hypnosis into their 
own practices. In addition. Ward has 
taught hypnotic technique to students in 
the university's School of Dentistry. 

Ward is quick to dispel the miscon- 
ceptions often fostered by the hypnotic 
trances as porttayed, for instance, by 
television sitcoms. The typical scenario 
ot the swinging watch or pendulum 
lulling an unsuspecting victim into a 
deep, amnestic trance, for example, is 
misleading in three ways: 1 . Ward talks 
his patients into a hypnotic state, he 
says. Very seldom is an object used to 
help induce hypnosis unless the patient 
requests it in order to have something on 
which to concenttate. 2. "Unsuspecting" 
victim? No, says Ward, it's highly im- 
probable that one could be hypnotized in 
a one-time meeting without one's con- 
sent or prior knowledge. Long-term 
"brain working" is something else again. 
3. "People often ask if the hypnotic state 
is like dreaming," comments Ward. "1 
tell them no, it's more like daydream- 
ing." The patient is aware of what is 
happening; it's just a different level ot 
awareness in which one's inhibitions are 
lowered. Very few subjects, according to 
Ward, cannot remember what has been 
said during hypnosis. 

The most important thing in dealing 
with any patient initially, says Ward, is 
seeing him or her face to face. Body 
language is extremely important, not 
just what is said, but how it is said. This 
information provides the basis from 

which he works out his method of treat- 
ment. "1 don't do telephone diagnosis," 
he says, though he often is requested to 
do so by people looking for a quick cure. 

According to Ward, about 70 percent 
of the population can use hypnosis 
readily, and 15 percent can perform at 
very deep levels. Another 15 percent is 
not susceptible to hypnosis due to the 
inability to concenttate; this occurs 
primarily in persons with vety low 
intellect or those with personality dis- 
orders. People who say they are too 
"strong-willed" to be hypnotized, he 
says, usually turn out to be the best 
subjects. They can turn that strength ot 
will to their advantage because it can 
lead to deeper concentration. 

"The problem," he says, "is not get- 
ting people hypnotized. The problem is 
when people come to me with unreal 
expectations. They expect immediate 
healing." Ward explains that hypnoanal- 
ysis concentrates on dealing with the 
cause ot the problem, not the symptoms 
alone, and this process takes more time. 
Unlike biofeedback or transcendental 
meditation, in which the stress itself is 
likely to be controlled, treatment by 
hypnosis aims at finding the root ot the 
problem and controlling it before stress 

Ward is modest about his achieve- 
ments and those of his chosen field. 
"People sometimes get well, but if we 
take credit for it, we're in trouble." As 
he points out, "Who's to say they 
wouldn't still have gotten well if we 
hadn't done anything?" 

That may well he, but hypnosis and 
hypnoanalysis as methods of treatment 
have produced some impressive results. 
Ward uses child cancer victims as an 
example. As Ward has mentioned, 
children are good subjects for hypnosis 
and they often work bettet in groups 
because they communicate so well with 
each other. Studies, particularly in the 
past two to three years, have shown a 
definite correlation between young 
cancer victims on whom hypnosis has 
been used and inexplicable, but mt)re 
frequent remissions. In addition, the 
children seem better able to relate to 
each other and to deal with their 

A recent book by Drs. Karen Oiness 
and G. Gail Gardner documents the 
effectiveness of hypnosis on children, 
and studies show that even children two 
and three years of age are susceptible. 
Often, says Ward, older children are 
eager to teach hypnosis to the younger 
ones in groups. "They find it an interest- 
ing and pleasant experience." 

Self-hypnosis can be effective in many 
ways. Ward, for instance, sees himself as 
"a good deep hypnotic subject." He 
generally uses self-hypnosis rather than 
an anesthetic for excision of skin lesions. 
"The surgeons can see evidence ot the 
heightened adrenalin when they go in," 
he says, "and bleeding is usually mini- 
mal." In fact, he points out, hypnosis is 
an effective method of controlling 
bleeding in hemophiliacs. 

Abusing self-hypnosis is virtually 
impossible. Ward says. The mind usually 
protects itself and one is able to come 
out of the hypnotic state with a mental 
snap of the fingers. 

As for the eight-year-old at Nag's 
Head, she still uses hypnosis for relaxa- 
tion and, in the past year, was able to 
control her own severe case of asthma 
using similar techniques. 

A teenaged boy is murdered in cold blood as 
his neighbors watch in horror. There are a 
number of eyewitnesses, but no one can 
give the police a good enough description to 
locate the car from which the fatal shot 
came, or the people in the car. 

Finally, a teenager comes forward who is 
willing to undergo a hypnotic interview. 
Through hypnosis, he is able to give different 
ar\d more detailed information about the 
incident. As a result, the three men in the 
car are brought to justice and convicted . . . 
of murder. 

Forensic hypnosis, says Ward, can he 
a most exciting and rewarding experi- 
ence. He volunteers his time to aid 
various law enforcement agencies, 
among them the FBI and CIA, and he 
was recognized in 1981 by the city of 

Richmond Bureau of Police for his help 
in the case of the anonymous murderers. 

Ward doesn't usually tape-record his 
sessions — he takes notes in lon^^hand — 
hut it's a necessary factor in working on 
criminal investigation cases. In over 250 
cases, he has helped ohtain information 
used in criminal trials, ohen working 
with witnesses who have diHiculty 
rememhering or descrihing what they 
saw or heard. 

At times, he also works with accused 
criminals who may or may not he 
guilty — and who may really not he aware 
of whether they are or not. Ward says 
one of his colleagues, Dr. Herbert 
Spiegel at Columbia University, refers 
to these people as "emotional vacuum 
cleaners," or highly suggestible people 
who may admit to crimes they haven't 
committed because they've convinced 
themselves otherwise. It's Ward's job to 
find the truth. 

Forensic hypnosis requires special 
training, says Ward, but often it proves 
worth the effort. He says many Virginia 
police have been trained in this area 
although, to his knowledge, they use it 
only to interpret the results of testing by 
licensed hypnotists. Currently, there is 
a question of whether hypnosis should 
even be used in criminal investigations; 
the issue is under examination by an 
American Medical Association 

Ward has been on both sides of the 
fence; he has had to testify for the state 
and for the defense at various times. 
Asked why he charges nothing for this 
work, he replies simply, "I have this 
idea that this is just something we're 
supposed to do." 

"]ust relax," instructs the doctor. "1 want 
you to see a calendar, a big desk calendar. " 
The patient regresses all the way to her 

"It's cold," she responds. "It is now so 
cold. 1 am beside this other person, this 
warm, other person. . . . She is not smiling 
at all . . . just staring at me. She is not 

Further therapy reveals many more 
episodes of childhood rejection and aliena- 
tion, inscribed forever on her subconscious 

Some dreams, says Ward, have indi- 
cated an intra-utero awareness; hypnosis 
often uncovers events beginning at birth 
that may have had an impact on the life 
of the patient and which may be neces- 
sary to understand in dealing with that 
person's present situation. 

"I do deal extensively with dreams," 
says Ward. "Hypnosis may make you 
more aware ot your dreams, but it won't 
make you dream differently or remember 
more than you did before." For people 
who want to remember their dreams, he 
recommends writing them down imme- 
diately upon awakening. 

On the subject of using hypnosis to 
uncover previous lives — a claim made 
recently by several people in the movie 
industry — Ward says, "This is a medical 
office, not a travel agency!" 

Ward has found, however, that un- 
covering present lives, particularly when 
one person is living several of them, can 
be most challenging. He has his own 
story to tell in The Healing of Lia (Mac- 
Millan Publishing Co., Inc., 1982), 
which he wrote with his patient, Lia 
Farrelli (a pseudonym). Lia's way of 
coping with her pressures was the same 
as the women featured in Sybd and The 
Three Faces of Eve; her own personality 
splintered into several different ones. 
What sets this hook apart is that Ward 
and Lia tell their own story, in the first 
person. They use excerpts from her 
journal, which was written by her alter 
egos and of which she had no knowledge 
at the time. Lia, who had been under 
psychiatric care for ten years prior to 
working with Ward, achieved personal- 
ity integration after only 20 hours of 

Though this type of work may sound 
more exciting than curing yet another 
smoker of the addiction to cigarettes. 
Ward says it is also very draining, the 
most grueling and time-demanding ot 
the problems with which he deals — for 
both the patient and the analyst. As he 
explains, an hour's appointment can 
easily be shot and stretched to two or 
three hours. "How can you just turn that 
kind ot thing oft?" he asks. 

In dealing with the more common 
problems that can be successfully treated 
with hypnosis. Ward says treatment time 
varies greatly depending on the subject 
and the cause ot the problem. For in- 
stance, he says, treating a habitual 
smoker takes less time than treating a 

psychological smoker. Treating gastroin- 
testinal problems can take anywhere 
from four to 14 hours of sessions. Alco- 
holism is difficult to treat through hyp- 
nosis. Ward says, because the patient 
must stay sober long enough to achieve a 
deep level of concentration. As far as 
weight control goes. Ward conducted a 
fi)llow-up on his patients friim 1976-79 
and found that 73 percent were able to 
lose weight and to maintain that loss. 

In the event that any of Ward's 
patients are not receptive to hypnosis, 
he works with them in the more tradi- 
tional psychotherapy modes or refers 
them to one of two counselors on statf 
who conduct one-on-one therapy and 
counseling. When patients can he 
hypnotized, he says, "it they see results 
they generally like it and stick with it." 
By "sticking with it," of course, he refers 
not only to treatment in the doctor's 
office, but to the follow-through that 
must be practiced by people who are 
working on relaxation techniques, tor 
instance, or weight control. Following 
the doctor's instructions is very impor- 
tant, says Ward, as is making sure one is 
seeing a reputable practitioner. 

Unfortunately, most states have no 
laws governing the use ot hypnosis. As 
Ward explains it, "There are many good 
lay hypnotists, but very few have train- 
ing in physiology and pathology. With- 
out the training, they may be perfectly 
competent to teach relaxation, but they 
certainly are not equipped to deal with 
emotional illness." He says a good 
safeguard tor people planning to see 
someone who uses hypnosis in treatment 
is to check with the American Society of 
Clinical Hypnosis in DesPlaines, Illi- 
nois, or the American Society ot Clini- 
cal and Experimental Hypnosis in New 

"The biggest reward I get in this 
work," says Ward, "is in the follow-up. 
It's a thrill to get a letter from someone 
I treated five years ago saying, 'Doctor, 
I'm fine, feeling better than ever!' " S 

Cynthia McMwKen is an editor in VCU 

Ilhistratiim by Kelly Alder. 





The "business" of 

Treating every profession end 
institution as if they were busi- 
nesses seems to be a by-product 
of ttie tectinologicaliy-oriented 
eigtities. And, although people 
devoted to the promotion of 
business and business techniques 
feel that health care should be 
included in the push for entrepre- 
neurial organization, Dr Arnold 
S. Relman disagrees. 

Editor of the New England 
Journal of Medicine and a 
professor of medicine at Harvard 
University, Relman is quick to 
point out that he is " , . a con- 
firmed capitalist, I believe in the 
free enterprise system, and some 
of my best friends ore business- 
men!" Hov^ever, he says, there 
are basic differences betv/een a 
business and o profession. When 
the distinctions become blurred, 
it's to the detriment of both. 

In his talk on the "business" of 
medicine at VCU's 21st annual 
Sanger Lecture, Relman said that 
historically, physicians have 
been paid a fee and, in that 
sense, they vi/ork for profit. But, he 
adds, a profession is based on 
education and special knowl- 
edge, providing services to 
society, being licensed and 
approved by that society, and 
securing a state's permission to 
regulate one's self and one's 
practice. In other words, a 
physician has the autonomy 
to set requirements for his or 
her own education and 

A business, on the other hand, 
is based on none of these 
applications. While it's expected 
to be honest and produce a 
good product, the general rule 
of thumb still Is "Buyer, beware." 
Ability to buy depends on ability 
to pay, and a successful con- 
sumer must be an informed, 
discriminating buyer 

Physicians, says Relman, act 
as their patients' trustee or agent; 
in essence, they are responsible 
for making purchasing decisions 
for the patients. And therein lies a 
potential conflict; the more 
doctors prescribe, the more 
money they may make. 

The concept of health care as 
an Industry or business is an 
oxymoron, according to Relman. 
In health care, one's very life and 
health depend on the quality 
and integrity of the supplier 
However, he admits, it is becom- 

ing more and more difficult for 
doctors to regard themselves 
as professionals rather than 

Where primary care physicians 
once were in the majority (70 
percent), they now are in the 
minority (30 percent). "It didn't 
used to be easy for a doctor to 
be cavalier about putting a 
patient In the hospital," explains 
Relman, due to the ongoing, 
more personal patient-doctor 
relationship and the fact that 
patients rarely were insured and 
thus had to pay all their own 
medical expenses. 

With the advent of specializa- 
tion, new medical techniques, 
and third party Insurance, 
physicians had to give less 
thought to the patient's ability to 
pay. After World War II, the 
suppliers — the doctors and the 
hospitals — found it was possible 
to get rich in the health care 

Also, says Relman, with the 
development of Medicare/ 
Medicaid programs, small 
proprietary hospitals for profit, 
and investor-owned hospitals 
and health care centers, exploit- 
ing the system of third party 
insurers became more common. 
The new "medical industrial 
complexes" of investor-owned 
health care corporations are 
growing 10 to 12 percent annu- 
ally, Relman says, causing costs 
to increase and patients to 
become concerned. 

"If this happened in the auto 
industry," Relman says, "it would 
be viewed as a success. In this 
case, it's seen as an unmitigated 
natural disaster!" 

Twenty years ago the federal 
government committed Itself to 
take care of this nation's poor 
and elderly citizens. Now, as 
Relman points out, the govern- 
ment Is trying to back off from 
too open-ended a promise. This, 
unfortunately, forces even more 
competition and commercializa- 
tion in the health care profes- 
sions. "Doctors are in such large 
numbers now that they're worried 
about survival," says Relman. 
"One way they can make up for 
that is by going commercial." 

While corporate medicine Is 
against the law in most states, 
Relman notes that many mem- 
bers of the medical professions 
are becoming partners in 
business or employees of busi- 
nesses In order to protect them- 
selves and their livelihood. 

But, says Relman, that's in 
conflict with the essence of 
being a doctor: to be the best 
independent agent for one's 

patient without prior or overriding 
concerns for one's self. And that's 
not easy if you own a piece of 
the pie. 

"We're at a turning point In the 
medical profession," declares 
Relman, "and we must make a 
decision." If medicine does 
indeed become a business, he 
says, the needs of the poor and 
the elderly will be disregarded; 
the ability to pay is necessary to 
a successful business. The ethical 
basis that separates the profes- 
sion from business will be lost. The 
American Medical Association, 
according to Relman, says that if 
a doctor tells the patient of his or 
her investments, that makes it all 

"But it's not OK!" argues 
Relman. "If we continue, and the 
system becomes unworkable, 
we'll end up specializing . . . 
boutique medicine. The public 
won't accept It, and we'll lose 
our franchise with the public. 

"Our technical services will 
always be needed," he says, 
"but If we lose our contract, 
society will use us in other ways. 
Commitment to service always 
should take precedence over 
economic interest in this 

— Cynihia McMullen 
Editnr, Research in Action 

Safe disposal of 

hazardous wastes 

The university recently passed a 
safety Inspection by the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission. The 
inspection, which was com- 
pleted in February, examined 
the activities conducted under 
the university's license as it relates 
to radiation safety and compli- 
ance with NRC rules and 

According to Dr Dean W. 
Broga, director of the university's 
Office of Environmental Health 
and Safety, VCU is one of the 
largest medical users of radia- 
tion In Virginia and the South. 
Among the responsibilities of 
OEHS Is directing the safe use of 
radiation and radioactive 
materials at the university. 

Swapping facuhy 

VCU has recently joined the 
National Faculty Exchange, a 
network of more than 100 U.S. 
colleges and universities that 
provides multi-lateral exchange 
opportunities for faculty and 

VCU's participation is coordi- 
nated by the Center for Educa- 
tional Development and Faculty 
Resources. The NFE allows faculty 
and professional administrative 
staff to leave their familiar 
campus situations temporarily for 
the challenge of a new and 
different college or university and 
geographic setting. It has been 
funded by the Exxon Education 
Foundation to encourage more 
interchange of ideas among 
professionals In higher education 
by Increasing their mobility. 
Faculty can teach new courses, 
establish new professional 
contacts, or pursue different 
research options. 

According to Denlse Janha, 
NFE coordinator for VCU, other 
agencies are planning to join 
NFE in 1985-86, including the U.S. 
General Accounting Office, the 
Library of Congress, and the U.S. 
Department of Education's 
Offices of Higher Education and 
Student Financial Assistance. 

The center is now accepting 
applications from VCU faculty for 
future exchanges. 

A second conception 

Two Virginia couples are expect- 
ing a baby this summer thanks to 
the MCV Hospitals' in vitro 
fertilization program. Ron and 
Mary Eimer of central Virginia 
are the first couple to achieve a 
pregnancy by this method at 

For six years, Steven and 
Melissia Clay had tried to have a 
baby. They entered the in vitro 
fertilization program at MCVH, 
the second of its kind to be 
established in Virginia. Program 
staff, under the direction of Dr 
Sanford Rosenberg, have now 
been evaluating infertile couples 
and performing the technique for 
a year 

Learning to play music 
the old way 

How do you encourage students 
to learn music from all periods, 
when they often do not have 
access to the Instruments for 
which the classical works were 
scored? VCU's Department of 
Music answered that question by 
creating a museum of musical 
Instruments so that students might 
have the opportunity to play 
Mozart on a harpsicord or Bach 


on a clavier. The museum has 
more than 50 instruments and is 
always seeking additions to the 
collection. All instruments in the 
museum, from string bass to violin 
to box piano, are playable and 
ovailable to students. 

Playing the stock 

Jack Eggleston turned a 
S100,000 investment into 
$183,438 in about ten weeks, 
despite the sluggish market in 
the final quarter of 1984. He 
invested in Teleconcepts and 
later short-sold Pantry Pride stock 
to turn the profit. 

Jack won't be spending any of 
his money, however — it's only a 
paper profit. Like countless other 
students throughout the United 
States, Jack, a Harrisonburg High 
School student, participated this 
fall in a simulated investment 

A total of 1 ,300 teams played 
VCU's Stock Mart<et Game this 
year In the Mid-Atlantic District, 
the game is sponsored by the 
Virginia Council on Economic 
Education and the Securities 
Industry Association. Students 
receive an imaginory 5100,000 to 
invest over a ten-week period. 
This year's teams represented 
200 schools and 8,000 students in 
Virginia, North Carolina, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, and central 
and western Pennsylvania. The 
students come from upper 
elementary grades through 

New hope for victims of 
facial pain 

The typical patient is female, 
under stress, and desperate for 
help. By the time she arrives at 
the Temporomandibular Joint 
(TMJ) and Facial Pain Research 
Center at the university, she 
might have seen a dozen 
specialists and spent thousands 
of dollars, but the problem just 
gets worse. Sometimes there is 
an undetected physical cause; 
sometimes it's the body's expres- 
sion of mental anxieties. Special- 
ists in the School of Dentistry and 
the Department of Psychology 
are treating these patients and 
researching new ways to identify 
and help them. 

CSX Corporation 
coming through 

Expanded educational oppor- 
tunities will be available to 
outstanding students as a result 
of a 325,000 unrestricted gift 
from the CSX Corporation to 
VCU's Presidential Scholarship 
and Honors Program. 

According to Dr. Wayne C. 
Hall, provost and vice-president 
for academic affairs and coordi- 
nator of the Honors Program, the 
money will be used to attract 
more students of high academic 
achievement by providing 
awards of financial support. The 
gift also will help to expand a 
lecture and cultural activities 

CSX also provided funds 
totaling 356,500 to continue the 
Terrace Concert Series of VCU for 
the 1985-86 season. The concerts 
are performed with the coopera- 
tion of the John F. Kennedy 
Center for the Performing Arts in 
Washington, D.C., and bring 
internationally recognized 
chamber music artists and 
groups to VCU's Performing Arts 

Plastic surgery in the 
year 2000 

Plastic surgery in the twenty-first 
century: the patient doesn't need 
an anesthetic. Instead, electrical 
probes turn on the brain's natural 
opiates; sophisticated compu- 
ters, scanners, lasers, and robots 
are the surgeon's tools. 

When Dr. I. Kelman Cohen, 
chairman of the Division of 
Plastic Surgery at MCV Hospitals, 
looks toward the future, he sees 
these developments and more. 
Wrinkles will be controlled 
scientifically, eliminating face- 
lifts. Fat deposits will be eradi- 
cated with drugs or genetic 
manipulations rather than fat 
suction. Even the more dromatic 
plastic surgery operations, such 
as reattaching severed limbs, 
repairing birth defects, recon- 
structing shattered faces, and 
revitalizing burned skin, will 

An executive in 

Charles Brown, chairman of the 
board of AT&T, presented a 
program to introduce students to 
senior-level business executives 
and to demonstrate "real world" 
examples of classroom theory for 
students. Brown is the Charles G. 
Thalhimer Family Executive-in- 

Residence in VCU's School of 

Brown has been chairman of 
the board of AT8(,T since 1979, 
steering the company through a 
period of momentous change in 
the telecommunications industry. 
As the company's chief execu- 
tive. Brown led ATSiT through the 
largest corporate reorganization 
in history, culminating in January 
1984 with the divestiture of the 
local Bell telephone companies. 

The agenda for the two-day 
session included lectures and 
discussions on business excel- 
lence in America, the future of 
AT&T and the communications 
industry, and government 
policies toward the telecommu- 
nications industry. The program 
also included the School of 
Business Honors Day, recognizing 
outstanding students, faculty, 
and alumni. 

Nontraditional needs 

As the trend toward more 
nontraditional students on 
college campuses grows, 
advisors are faced with greater 
challenges in helping students 
who may be older, changing 
careers, returning to complete 
an initial degree, or faced with 
some other kinds of broken life 
patterns. At VCU, the Advising 
Center has become an "open 
door" to the university for people 
returning to school. A special 
course, "Focus on Career 
Choice," is offered specifically 
for adults who need help sorting 
out current educotional and 
occupational opportunities. 

Fulbright recipient 

Dr. Gerald A. Soft, formerly a 
resident in internal medicine on 
the MCV Campus, was named a 
Fulbright scholar for 1984-85 in 
January. Soft is currently conduct- 
ing research in hematology in 

The purpose of the Fulbright 
Program, now in its 38th year, as 
set forth in the Mutual Educa- 
tional and Cultural Exchange Act 
of 1951, is to "enable the govern- 
ment of the United States to 
increase mutual understanding 
between the people of the 
United States and the people of 
other countries." Nearly 800 
Americans have been awarded 
Fulbright grants for university 
lecturing and postdoctoral 
research in almost 100 countries. 

The Council for International 
Exchange of Scholars convened 
peer review committees this year 
composed of American scholars 
and professionals to review the 
more than 3,000 applications 
and make recommendations to 
Fulbright Program agencies and 
universities abroad. The Fulbright 
Program is financed and admin- 
istered by the U.S. Information 
Agency (USIA). The Council for 
International Exchange of 
Scholars, an affiliate of the 
American Council of Education, 
works with USIA in administering 
the program. 

Recognizing medical 

An educational film for residents 
of MCV Hospitals, which depicts 
an emergency room situation in 
Main Hospital, recently won first 
place in a national competition 
of the International Film and TV 
Festival in New York. The film, 
"The Complex Multi-System 
Injured Patient," featured two 
MCVH physicians: Dr. Alfred 
Gervin, associate professor of 
surgery and director of Emer- 
gency Medical Services, and 
Dr Glenn Barnhart, a fellow in 
cardiovascular surgery. 

Toward helping 
substance abusers 

"Substance Abuse among Health 
Care Professionals" was the focus 
of the second annual Hoff- 
Robinson Symposium on Sub- 
stance Abuse Medicine this 
spring. Keynote speaker Dr. 
Edward J, Khantzian, associate 
professor of psychiatry at the 
Harvard Medical School, is 
nationally known for his work with 
substance impaired health care 

New methods of treatment for 
drug and alcohol abuse were 
presented last summer during the 
first symposium. Dr. David Knott of 
the University of Tennessee, a 
physician who has established 
several treatment and research 
centers in the South, addressed 
last year's symposium on "The 
Future of the Drug-Alcohol 
Enterprise: Science vs. Craft." 

The Hoff-Robinson Symposium 
was established in 1984 to 
explore major issues in the field 
of substance abuse medicine. 
The symposium is named in 
honor of Dr. Ebbe Hoff, who in 
1948 founded what is today the 
MCVH Division of Substance 
Abuse Medicine, and Elisabeth 


Robinson who worked with Hoff ' 
as a social worker 

The symposium is supported by 
the Hoff-Robinson Fund for the 
Advancement of Substance 
Abuse Medicine, established to 
receive gifts in support of re- 
search, training, and the annual 

Direct-dial health 

The MCV Hospitals Health Line 
has been in operation for more 
than eight years. By calling (804) 
786-1000, people can listen to 
their choice of taped messages 
on various health topics. The 
most frequently requested tapes 
ore for cancer information. 

The Health Line was originally 
developed under a grant from 
the National Cancer Institute with 
the cooperation of the American 
Cancer Society, Virginia Division. 
During the past year, the Health 
Line has been undergoing 
reorganization. Dr. Lome K. 
Garrettson, associate professor of 
pediatrics and pharmacology, 
recently has been appointed 
medical director for the pro- 
gram. Under Garrettson 's direc- 
tion, the Health Line is being 
managed as a joint effort with 
the Central Virginia Poison 
Center. The tapes also are being 
reviewed and updated. 

The service is operated seven 
days a week from 8 am-11 pm. 
Callers are connected by a 
nurse to recorded health care 
information on cancer and other 
health problems. Callers outside 
the Richmond area can dial the 
Health Line toll-free at 1-800-552- 

Richmond respondents 
on crime 

More than seven out of ten (72 
percent) Richmond area resi- 
dents favor giving police more 
power to question people, and 
more than nine out of ten (92 
percent] favor the courts giving 
harsher sentences for persons 
convicted of violent crimes. Sixty- 
six percent of Richmonders favor 
the death penalty for persons 
convicted of murder. These views 
represent part of the results of the 
fall 1984 Richmond Area Survey 
recently released by the Survey 
Research Laboratory of the 
Department of Sociology and 

The fall survey, "Crime, Victim- 
ization, and Law Enforcement," 

sought the views of Richmond 
area residents on various aspects: 
of the topic, using personal and 
telephone interviews. Among 
some of the many responses 
collected, the survey revealed 
that 48 percent of the respon- 
dents feel crime in their neigh- 
bortioods has remained rela- 
tively unchanged over the past 
two years, despite the recent 
"wave" of crime reporting in the 
local media. Opinions were split 
on the amount of crime in the 
public schools; 44 percent think it 
has increased in the last two 
years, while an equal percent 
think it has stayed the same. 

Noting the strong support for 
more police power and harsher 
sentences, the respondents were 
asked about their personal fears 
of crime. Two-thirds indicated 
that they worry "frequently" or 
"sometimes" about having their 
homes burglarized. Over one- 
half expressed similar concern 
about being robbed or mugged. 
One-third feared being violently 
attacked, such as being beaten 
up, stabbed, or shot, and neariy 
one-fourth of the women sur- 
veyed said they worry about 
being sexually assaulted. 

Each semester, the SRL con- 
ducts a Richmond Area Survey 
on a variety of public issues, 
drawing on the expertise of the 
SRL staff and benefiting both the 
Richmond community and VCU 
students who use the laboratory 
to perfect their investigative 
social science skills. 

Housing market review 

Despite falling mortgage interest 
rates during the third quarter of 
1984, the number of residential 
home sales in Virginia declined, 
according to a report published 
by the Virginia Real Estate 
Research Center at VCU, 

The center publishes quarteriy 
reports that provide information 
on the real estate activity of 
principal markets in each of 
Virginia's nine largest metropoli- 
tan areas. The current perform- 
ance in each of the sectors is 
compared to both the previous 
quarter and the same quarter of 
a year ago. 

A summary of the third-quarter 
report's findings indicates that, 
along with a 10 percent drop in 
the number of sales, the dollar 
value of total homes sold de- 
creased 11 percent. The average 
price of a home in Virginia 
during the third quarter was 
$90,941. The prime lending rate, 
which peaked at 13 percent 
eariy in the quarter, began 

falling through September. 
Construction lending, typically 
tied to the prime rate, however, 
did not experience any substan- 
tial increases. The average 
marketing time needed for 
selling a home during the third 
quarter was 71 days, a 9 percent 
increase from the second 
quarter. The total dollar volume 
of construction permits issued in 
the third quarter was only slightly 
behind the second quarter 
(minus 3 percent] and well 
ahead of the third quarter of 
1983 (21 percent). 

Copies of the report and 
additional information are 
available in the Virginia Real 
Estate Research Center, 

Men about town 

"A Change of Pace" was this 
year's theme for the 11th annual 
Men About Town fashion show 
sponsored by the MCV Hospitals 
Auxiliary, Men from local busi- 
nesses, government agencies, 
and organizations posed as 
Richmond area trendsetters in 
the show, which was held in April 
in the Miller and Rhoads Tea 

Among the 15 models were Dr 
Harold M. Maurer, chairman of 
the Department of Pediatrics; 
Peter F. Rapp, MCV Hospitals' 
administrator of operations; Louis 
C. Saksen, VCU's assistant vice- 
president of facilities manage- 
ment; and Dr Jack Spiro, direc- 
tor of the Judaic Studies Program 
and rabbi of Congregation Beth 

Entertainment during the 
champagne reception, dinner, 
and show was provided by the 
VCU Jazz Quartet and VCU 
dancers. Proceeds from the show 
will benefit diabetes research on 
the MCV Campus. 

A visiting scholar 

The School of Nursing hosted the 
second Doris B. Yingling Visiting 
Scholar Program in March. 

This year's visiting scholar was 
Dr. Joyce Fitzpatrick, dean of the 
School of Nursing at Case 
Western Reserve University. 
Fitzpatrick is nationally recog- 
nized for her advancement of 
nursing research as well as for 
her doctoral nursing program 
development. She presented a 
public lecture on "Demystifying 

the Research Process" as one of 
several activities while at VCU. 
She also met with faculty and 
students and participated in 
seminars, workshops, and 
research meetings. 

Post-abortion therapy 

This spring, VCU's Center for 
Psychological Services and 
Development began offering 
group therapy sessions for 
women who have had abortions. 

The 12- week therapy sessions 
evolved from the research of 
Leslie Butterfield, a doctoral 
candidate in clinical psychol- 
ogy, who found that women 
suffer less intense symptoms of 
depression and tension when 
they participated in post- 
abortion therapy. Women in 
the sessions reported positive 
feelings about recognizing and 
coping with the various stages of 
grieving frequently associated 
with post-abortion emotional 

Tuition and fees for 

The executive committee of 
VCU's Board of Visitors has 
approved increases in student 
charges for 1985-86. 

Total charges for in-state 
undergraduates, including room 
and board, will increase 7.5 
percent next academic year. 
Tuition and fees will be SI, 798, a 
9.1 percent or S150 increase over 
the current year's costs. Housing 
costs will average $1,535, a 4,8 
percent Increase, Board charges 
will go up 8.9 percent. 

The smallest increase for next 
year will be borne by in-state 
graduate students. The executive 
committee approved a 2.9 
percent increase, or a total of 
$2,134, In tuition and fees, only 
$60 more than this year's costs. 
In the past, rate increases for in- 
state graduate students have 
averaged about 18 percent a 

Out-of-state undergraduates 
will pay roughly three times the 
rotes charged in-state students, 
representing a 19.6 percent 
increase, bringing the new out- 
of-state total to $4,088. Out-of- 
state graduate students will pay 
$3,964 In 1985-86, a 8.5 percent 

The executive committee's aim 
in making its recommendations 
was to keep college education 
affordable for Virginia residents. 
Increases for in-state students are 
the smallest in six years. 


Second Gait scholar 

Dr. King E. Davis, professor of 
social work, lias been nonnecl 
Virginia's second Gait Visiting 
Sctiolar in Public Mental Healtti 
by ttie Virginia Department of 
Mental Healtti and Mental 

Establistied in January 1983, 
the Gait sctiolar post is designed 
to strengttien ties between 
Virginia's educational institutions 
and state tiospitals and training 
centers for the mentally handi- 
capped. It is named for the Gait 
family in recognition of their 
contributions as the initial leader- 
ship in the creation of today's 
Eastern State Hospital, founded 
in 1773 in Williamsburg as the 
Eastern Lunatic Asylum of 
Virginia and the first public, 
psychiatric hospital in the 

Davis formerly was professor of 
social wort< at Norfolk State 
University and from 1970-75 
served as director of mental 
health clinics and centers for the 
Department of Mental Health 
and Mental Retardation. In 1982, 
he headed the Commissioner's 
Task Force on Mental Health and 
Mental Retardation Forensic 
System Services. 

Continuing studies and 
public service statistics 

The Evening Studies Office has 
completed its recent profile of 
VCU evening students. The 
"typical E-student" is 30 years 
old, already holds a degree, 
and is currently taking classes as 
a special or nondegree seeking, 
part-time student. According to 
evening studies staff, with 5,000 
evening students, "diversity" is the 
best term to describe the eve- 
ning program. 

In her recent study of gradu- 
ates from the Bachelor of Gen- 
eral Studies Program, Dr. Meta 
Braymer, coordinator, says that 
89 percent of the respondents 
said they would choose the 
B.G.S. degree over a conven- 
tional degree program if they 
had it all to do over again. More 
than 85 percent of the respon- 
dents said that they thought their 
nontraditional degree was a big 
help to their careers. 

VCU Annual Giving 

The Second Annual Spring 
Phonathon took place over a 
period of ten evenings in late 
March and April from VCU's 
Meeting Center. Using a 20-line 
phone bank, alumni and student 
volunteers talked to alumni 
prospects from the university's 12 
' schools and one college. 

According to Robert J. Fagg, 
Jr, director of the Annual Giving 
Program, this year's phonathon 
was a resounding success. The 
goal was set at 520,000, but the 
175 students and alumni who 
volunteered their time brought in 
542,659, more than double the 
original goal and nearly four 
times greater than last year's 
total of $11,500. The alumni group 
from the School of Pharmacy 
had the largest single evening 
total of 57,912. 

VCU Alumni 

Association award 


Patty Janice Baker, a native of 
Danville, Virginia, has been 
named this year's winner of the 
Virginia Commonwealth Univer- 
sity Alumni Association Award. 
The award is given to a graduat- 
ing student who has demon- 
strated commitment to VCU 
through scholastic achievement 
and involvement in campus ac- 
tivities. Candidates for the award 
must have held at least two ex- 
ecutive positions in student orga- 
nizations and maintained a 
grade point average of 3.5. 

As a marketing major in the 
School of Business, Baker helped 
establish the Society of Business 
Students and served as its 1984- 
85 president. She also was vice- 
president of the American Mar- 
keting Association and a 
member of the VCU Concert 
Committee. As a student repre- 
sentative on the School of Busi- 
ness Curriculum Committee, 
Baker proposed revisions to the 
business curriculum. 

A tale of two teams 

It was the best of teams ... it was 
the worst of teams. 

That pretty much sums up the 
1984-85 version of the VCU Rams 
basketball team. While the 
talented squad won both the 
regular season Sun Belt Confer- 
ence championship and the 
league tournament, the team 

made an early exit from the 
NCAA Tournament despite being 
listed as one of the top seeded 
teams in the nation. 

That the Rams set a school 
record with 26 victories this 
season was hardly surprising. 
VCU returned nine lettermen 
from last year's 23-7 squad. In 
addition, all five starters were on 
hand from a year ago, including 
All-Sun Belt choice Calvin 
Duncan and Mike Schlegel. 

Surprising Rolando Lamb, who 
ended the season as the team's 
leading scorer, teamed with 
Duncan to form one of the top 
guard combinations in the 
nation. Duncan has been voted 
All-Sun Belt in each of the last 
three years, but Lamb, one of the 
most improved players in the 
conference, won first team 
recognition this year. 

Center Mike Schlegel, the MVP 
of the Sun Belt Tournament, 
helped VCU on the inside and 
probably most typified the 
team's style — the emphasis on 
the wor1< ethic. 

VCU became only the second 
team in the history of intercolle- 
giate basketball to have four 
1 ,000-point scorers on the floor at 
the same time when Michael 
Brown reached the plateau in 
the opening round of the NCAA 
Tournament. Duncan, Lamb, and 
Schlegel were the others. 

Brown teamed with defensive 
specialist Neil Wake at forv\/ard. 
Senior Robert Dickerson added 
offensive firepower off the bench. 

The 26-6 record was the best in 
VCU annals and the 12-2 mark in 
Sun Belt play put the Rams in first 
place. The Rams won the last 
eight league games in succes- 
sion to earn the top seed in the 
tournament, which was played in 

The team rolled through the 
Sun Belt Tournament In impressive 
fashion, whipping North Carolina 
Charlotte, 85-62, in the opening 
round. The Rams routed Jackson- 
ville, 75-57, in the semifinals. In 
the championship, VCU took on 
state rival Old Dominion. The 
game, which was televised 
nationwide by ESPN, resulted in 
a 87-82 Ram win over the 

In the NCAA West Region 
Tournament in Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, VCU toppled 
Marshall 81-65 in the opening 
round. But tough Alabama from 
the powerful Southeast Confer- 
ence ended the Rams' season. 

many thought prematurely, with 
a 63-59 upset. 

Though the season ended on 
a disappointing note for the VCU 
faithful, the season was a record- 
setting one in which the Rams 
were ranked as high as 11th in 
the nation by both the Asso- 
ciated Press and United Press 

J. D. Barnett, the winningest 
coach in VCU history, accepted 
the coaching reins at Tulsa 
following the season. Ultra- 
successful Mike Pollio, a Ram 
assistant coach from 1973-75, 
was hired on May 10 to continue 
the winning tradition. Pollio's 
teams at Kentucky Wesleyan 
advanced to the Final Four of 
Division II three of the last four 
years. His five-year record with 
the Panthers was an incredible 

With the return of Michael 
Brown and Nicky Jones after an 
injury, the basketball coaching 
staff has been busy lining up 
recruits for the future. 

— Mike Ballweg 
Sports Injurmatum Direcun 

Award recipients of the 

MCV Alumni 

Association of VCU 

The Medical College of Virginia 
Alumni Association of VCU has 
awarded Dr Harry Lyons the as- 
sociation's Outstanding Alumnus 
Award. Lyons was recognized for 
his service in dental education, 
dedication to professionalism, 
and continuing inspiration and 
support to dentistry students. 

A 1923 graduate of MCV, Lyons 
served as dean of the School 
of Dentistry from 1950-70. He is a 
past president of the Virginia 
State Dental Association, the 
American Dental Association, 
the Association of Dental 
Schools, and the American Col- 
lege of Dentists. The award was 
presented in May at the 96th an- 
nual meeting of the association. 

The alumni association also 
awarded John Curtis Nottingham 
of Williamsburg the Distinguished 
Pharmacy Alumnus Award for his 
contributions to the profession, 
dedication to public service, 
and leadership. A 1935 graduate 
of MCV, Nottingham is past pres- 
ident of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association and former 
executive secretary of the Vir- 
ginia Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. The award was presented in 
May at the fifth annual meeting 
of the association's pharmacy 






The International Association for 
Dental Research has named a 
VCU professor of periodontics 
the recipient of its 1985 Research 
in Periodontal Diseose Award. 

Dr Richard R. Ranney, director 
of VCU's Clinical Research 
Center for Periodontal Disease, 
received the award which was 
established to recognize, en- 
courage, and stimulate out- 
standing research achievements 
in basic research in periodontal 

Ranney was one of the first 
researchers to provide direct 
evidence for the role of immunity 
in the development of periodon- 
tal disease. His research stimu- 
lated a worldv/ide interest in 
hypersensitivity mechanisms in 
the gums; these basic studies 
have been called classics in 
experimental periodontology. 

The research center Ranney 
directs at VCU is one of only 
three such centers in the country. 

Virginia Institute for 



The development of an interdis- 
ciplinary institute at VCU for the 
research and training of profes- 
sionals to serve persons with 
developmental disabilities and 
handicaps has been funded by 
the U,S, Department of Health 
and Human Services, 

Through this grant and funds 
provided by VCU, the Virginia 
Institute for Developmental 
DIsobilities will allow university 
personnel throughout the aca- 
demic disciplines to train to- 
gether to fill specialized roles 
within the developmental 
disabilities service system. Along 
with members of state and local 
agencies, these professionals will 
implement programs that serve 
disabled individuals and im- 
prove the competence of 
persons currently working within 
the developmental disabilities 

As a "satellite center" of the 
program at Georgetown Univer- 
sity in Washington, DC, VCU will 
have the first universit/ affiliated 
program in Virginia. Dr, Howard 

Garner, associate professor of 
education, will direct the institute. 

The institute will sponsor 
national symposia and work- 
shops dealing with transitional 
services and employment 
opportunities for persons with 
developmental disabilities such 
as cerebral palsy, mental 
retardation, autism, and physical 
disabilities with lifelong effects. 
Gathering research data and 
developing effective methods of 
disseminating the results will be 
another goal, as well as a series 
of conference presentations that 
will provide a forum for public 
discussion and debate concern- 
ing the institute's overall goals 
and objectives. 

Joint planning activities for the 
institute include faculty from VCU's 
Schools of Medicine, Allied 
Health Professions, Social Work, 
Education, Community and 
Public Affairs; the Department of 
Psychology; and the Rehabilita- 
tion Research and Training 
Center. Participating communitv 
agencies include the State 
Department of Mental Health 
and Mental Retardation, the 
State Developmental Disabilities ' 
Council, and the Richmond 
Association for Retarded 

Natural pain control 

Research on stress-induced 
analgesia, which began in VCU 
laboratories in the mid-1970s, has 
evolved to the point that the 
New York Academy of Sciences 
recently sponsored its first Inter- 
national Conference on Stress- 
Induced Analgesia. 

Lead conference speaker. Dr. 
Ronald L, Hayes, notes that the 
original research on the topic 
was published from work he did 
as a student in Dr. David Mayer's 
labs in 1976. Hayes, now an 
assistant professor of surgery at 
VCU, spoke on The Range of 
Environmental Stimuli that 
Produce Analgesia." 

Mayer, professor of physiology 
and biophysics, and Dr Linda R. 
Watkins, assistant professor of 
physiology and biophysics, also 
represented VCU at the confer- 
ence, Mayer spoke on "Multiple 
Endogenous Pain Modulatory 
Systems" and Watkins' topic was 
"Opoid and Non-Opoid Stress 
Analgesia Induced by Varying 
the Location of Shock," 

The purpose of the confer- 
ence, as stated by the New York 
Academy of Sciences, was for 
participants to "evaluate each 
other's paradigms and analgesi- 
metric techniques, to identify 

new lines of investigation and 
theory, and to consider carefully 
the ethical issues involved in 
research on stress and pain," 

Papers presented at the 
conference are to be published 
as a single topic volume of the 
Annals of the New York Aca- 
demy of Sciences. 

Sight savings 

Research to Prevent Blindness 
(RPB) has made a grant to VCU's 
Department of Ophthalmology 
for the study of blinding diseases. 
This contribution represents a 1 7 
percent increase in the amount 
of funds provided annually by 
RPB to the Department of 
Ophthalmology for the advance- 
ment of eye research. 

Dr. Andrew P. Ferry, depart- 
ment chairman, says the in- 
crease in RPB support is a critical 
factor in meeting the opportuni- 
ties for sight-saving research that 
are emerging with technological 
advances. According to Ferry, 
"We are now managing eye 
disorders that once would have 
led to certain blindness. 

"What's more," he says, "our 
research on diseases of the eye 
is contributing significantly to the 
knowledge and, we hope, to the 
management of neurological 
disorders, diabetes, and other 
systemic afflictions." 

RPB, which provides support to 
56 U.S. institutions, is the world's 
leading voluntary organization in 
support of eye research; it has 
channeled over S45 million into 
the study of blinding diseases. 

Health behavior of 


The continuation of an all-state 
research project initiated at VCU 
in 1983-84 has been funded by 
the American Heart Association. 

The grant, administered by Dr 
Lee Pratt, associate professor of 
health education, initially in- 
volved 5,000 tenth and 12th 
grade high school students and 
entering college freshmen in 
Virginia. This year, about 5,000 
students in the second and fifth 
grades will be involved through- 
out the state. 

Baseline data with expected 
levels of knowledge are being 
determined and compared with 
national norms, and data on 
student health behaviors have 

been compiled and compared 
to test score outcomes. 

Pratt currently is working with 
the State Department of Educa- 
tion to revise the Public School 
Curriculum Guide, based on the 
results of her research. In addition 
she coordinates the State Task 
Force, which includes five 
universities, the State Department 
of Education, and the Virginia 
affiliate of the American Heart 

Studying the 
encouragement of 

Eugenics, the study of hereditary 
improvement by genetic control, 
is the subject of a research grant 
recently awarded Dr. J. John 
Palen of the Department of 
Sociology and Anthropology by 
the Rockefeller Foundation. The 
grant is designed to study the 
effects of eugenic-based 
population policies in Singapore. 

Singapore's fertility program, 
intended to increase fertilify 
among its college-educated, 
married women, involves a tax 
structure that encourages 
affluent, well-educated couples 
to have three or more children. In 
addition, the government 
provides the children of these 
couples with preferential place- 
ments in the city's most selective 

Palen plans to assess the 
reactions of Singapore's citizens 
to their government's induce- 
ments. The research project also 
will analyze how the program 
affects demographic factors. 

Sloan research fellow 

Dr James Terner, assistant 
professor of chemistry, has been 
awarded an Alfred P Sloan 
Research Fellowship for 1985-87, 
The grant provides 525,000 over 
the two-year period and will fund 
a research project designed to 
study the series of fundamental 
processes that occur within 
various chemical reactions. 

Using lasers and stroboscopic 
techniques, Terner will investigate 
how enzymes work. Another 
aspect of his research will 
examine the individual chemical 
reactions that plants undergo as 
they collect light from the sun. 

Considered to be among the 
most prestigious national re- 
search grants, Sloan Fellowships 
are awarded to outstanding 
young academic researchers 
who demonstrate potential for 
contributing significant new 


knowledge to the scientific 
disciplines, Eacti year, the Sloan 
Foundation Program Committee 
reviews 400 nominations from 
which only 90 Fellows are 
selected. Of these, only 23 
fellowships are awarded in the 
field of chemistry. 

A common affliction 

Dr. John M. Kellum, professor of 
surgery, has received a 845,000 
grant from Merck, Sharp and 
Dome to study a new antibiotic 
treatment for diverticulitis. The 
condition, a complication of 
diverticulosis. Is a common and 
sometimes lethal Infection of the 
large Intestine. 

The condition begins when the 
wall of the intestine loses its 
muscular tone, and small pock- 
ets, called diverticula, form. 
When solid material becomes 
trapped in the pockets, the 
intestine becomes inflamed, 
causing abdominal pain. This 
inflammation, or diverticulitis, 
may lead to the formation of an 
abscess, or a fistula, which is an 
abnormal connection between 
the intestine and other abdomi- 
nal organs. Surgery is often 
indicated with the need tor a 
temporary colostomy. 

The prevalence of the diverti- 
culosis in adults over 65 is nearly 
35 percent; the occurrence by 
age 85 Is more than 65 percent. 
Because the elderly are most 
affected by the disease, further 
complications often develop. It Is 
estimated that more than 11 
million people In the United 
States suffer from some form of 
diverticulosis, owing to the lack 
of bulky foods and roughage in 
the Western diet. 

Kellum will Investigate what 
type of medical treatment Is 
most successful in reducing 
intestinal inflammation and 
avoiding surgery and its asso- 
ciated complications. 


An interdisciplinary group of 
basic health scientists from the 
university has been designated 
the National Toxicology Pro- 
gram's laboratory for immuno- 
logical research. 

The principal investigators for 
this project are Dr. Albert E. 
Munson, professor, and Dr. 
Michael P. Holsapple, assistant 
professor. Department of Phar- 
macology and Toxicology; Dr. S. 
Gaylen Bradley, dean of the 
School of Basic Health Sciences; 
Dr. Francine Marciano-Cabral, 
assistant professor, and Dr. 

Thalachallour Mohanakumar, 
professor. Department of Micro- 
biology and Immunology; and 
Dr. Kimber L. White, assistant 
professor. Department of 

The five-year award totals 
S2.24 million. The primary work of 
the laboratory will be investigat- 
ing the effects of drugs and 
chemicals on immunocompe- 
tence. The selection of the 
substances to be studied will be 
based on their potential for 
environmental impact and their 
overall importance to the 
National Toxicology Program. 
Using animal cells and tissues, 
studies will attempt to define the 
possible sites and mechanisms of 
chemical action, and the risk to 
human populations that might 
be exposed to the selected 

Sociological forum 

VCU's 15th annual Sociological 
Research Symposium focused on 
"Religion in Contemporary 

Designed as a forum for 
sociologists throughout the mid- 
Atlantic region, the symposium 
was created to provide a means 
for faculty and students to share 
information dealing with a wide 
range of research projects 

involving social problems and 
human welfare. 

This year's keynote speaker 
was University of Virginia's Dr. Ted 
Caplow. Presentations by over 
100 participants addressed 
contemporary issues concerning 
gerontology, sexuality, juvenile 
delinquency, and criminology. 
Other subjects covered included 
the family, student culture, and 
sociology and social policy. 
Sociology faculty members and 
students representing 25 colleges 
and universities led a series of 
panel discussions throughout the 

Nurse specialists 

A book exploring the various 
roles of clinical nurse specialists 
has been written and coedited 
by Ann B. Hamric, assistant 
director of nursing education, 
and Judy Spross, a graduate 
clinical nurse specialist. 

The Clinical Nurse SpecialisI in 
Theory and Practice examines 
the development, current state, 
and future of practice by clinical 
nurse specialists — a master's 
prepared nurse who specializes 
In one area of clinical nursing 


Martha D. Berliner, professor 
and chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Biology, has been 
elected a fellow of the British 
Royal Microscopical Society. Her 
research on strain improvement 
In industrial microalgae was 
highlighted In High Technology In 
an article on marine biotechnol- 
ogy; she presented a paper 
"Genetic Modification In Mi- 
croalgae" at the Solar Energy 
Research Institute Program 
Review; she presented a paper 
with Barry Rosen on "Protoplast 
Induction on Chlorella" a\ the 
American Society of Cell Biol- 
ogy; and she attended the 
International Biotech '84 

Lynn Z. Bloom, professor of 
English, has published Fad and 
Artifact: Writing Nonfiction. She 
also presented two papers, 
"Growing Up Female In Ameri- 
can Autobiographies" and 
"False Feminization of the 

Journal" at the Modern Lan- 
guage Association meeting. 

Martin Bloom, professor of 
social wort<, has published 
Lifespan Development: Bases for 
Preventative and Innovative 
Helping, second edition. 

James H. Boykin, professor of 
real estate and urban land 
development, has been se- 
lected a Fellow of the Homer 
Hoyt Institute School of Post 
Doctoral and Advanced Studies 
in Land Economics. He also was 
recently featured on "Financial 
Enterprise," a national public 
broadcasting system program 
dedicated to informing the 
American public on Issues that 
affect their dally lives. 

Chestina Brollier, assistant 
professor of occupational 
therapy, has received an Ameri- 
can Occupational Therapy 
Foundation research grant for "A 

Pilot Study of Job Burnout in 
Registered Occupational 

David Bromley, professor and 
chairman. Department of 
Sociology and Anthropology, 
presented a paper "Financing 
the Millennium: The Economic 
Structure of the Unification 
Church" at a symposium at the 
University of Nebraska. He also 
was invited to address the 
Virginia Sociological Association. 

Patricia Jotinson Brown, 
assistant professor of recreation, 
spoke on the topic "Communi- 
cation Skills: Making Yourself 
Effective," at the first Leadership 
Training Institute, sponsored by 
the Virginia Recreation and Park 

Russell V. Brown, professor of 
biology, has published two 
papers in The Greyhound Review 
on "Calculation of Inbreeding" 
and "Linebreedlng." 

George W. Burke, emeritus 
professor of restorative dentistry, 

was recognized at the annual 
meeting of the Virginia Dental 
Association for his talents and 
contributions as editor of the 
Virginia Dental Journal from 

Joseph P. Bush, assistant 
professor of psychology, has 
been elected treasurer of the 
Virginia Psychological 

Rosemary S. Caffarella, 
associate professor and chair- 
man. Division of Educational 
Studies, presented a paper 
"Adult Development: Implica- 
tions for Learning In Adulthood" 
to the Greater Richmond Inserv- 
ice Directors. She also presented 
"Beyond Publish or Perish: 
Incentives and Disincentives of 
Doing Research" at the Commis- 
sion of Professors of Adult Educa- 
tion conference in Louisville, 


Thomas Carlton, associate 
professor of social work, has 
published Clinical Social Work in 
Health Settings: A Guide to 
Professional Practice witti Exem- 
plars. He also has published with 
Barbara Bert<man Development 
of Healthi Social Work Curricula: 
Patterns and Processes in Three 
Programs of Social Work Educa- 
tion. He has published with 
Barbara Berkman and Hans 
Faick "The Use of Theoretical 
Constraints and Research Data 
to Establish a Base for Clinical 
Social Work in Health Settings," 
Social Work in Health Care, 
Volume 10, 

Ann Creighton-Zollar, 
assistant professor of sociology 
and Afro-American studies and 
acting coordinator of Afro- 
American studies, has published 
a book A Member of the Family: 
Strategies for Black Family 

George T. Crutchfield, 
director of the School of Mass 
Communications, served on a 
panel to select winners of the 
eighth annual Times-Dispatch 
Community Service Awards. He 
also has been named vice- 
president of Kappa Tau Delta, a 
national journalism and mass 
communications society. 

Patricia T. Davis, instructor In 
community and psychiatric 
nursing, and Chun-Wai Chan, 
assistant professor of internal 
medicine and director. University 
Heolth Services, presented a 
paper "Promoting Health Behav- 
iors: Does the Health Risk Ap- 
praisal Work?" at the annual 
meeting of the American Col- 
lege Health Association. 

Rutiedge M. Dennis, associ- 
ate professor of sociology and 
anthropology, was recently 
elected to the Board of Trustees 
of the National Assault on 
Illiteracy Program and given a 
Certificate of Merit award by the 
organization at Its national 
meeting In Washington, D.C. 

Murry DePillors, dean of the 
School of the Arts, spent a month 
In Penang, Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaysia, as an academic 
specialist advising on curriculum, 
physical plant, outreach, promo- 
tion, and recruitment. 

George Dintiman, professor 
of education and chairman. 
Division of Health and Physical 
Education, completed a video 
with an NBC crew and the Dallas' 
Cowboys on "Speed and 

William H. Duvall, dean of 
student affairs, has been named 
secretary/treasurer of the Virginia 
Association of Student Personnel 
Administrators for 1985. 

William F. Eglehoff, director of 
Elderhostel for the Virginia Center 
on Aging, has been elected to 
the national steering committee 
of Elderhostel. 

Vivien K. Ely, professor of 
education, was named the 1984 
recipient of the Distinguished 
Service Award given by the 
Marketing and Distributive 
Education Division of the Ameri- 
can Vocational Association. 

Hans FaIck, professor of social 
wor1<, delivered a keynote 
address to the Sixth Annual 
Meeting of the Committee for the 
Advancement of Social Work 
with Groups In Chicago. 

Susan F. Feiner, assistant 
professor of economics, deliv- 
ered a paper "The Household 
Class Process and Imperialism: 
An Alternative View of the Family 
Wage" at the American Eco- 
nomic Association meeting In 
Dallas, Texas. 

Michael L. Fine, assistant 
professor of biology, presented a 
paper at the annual meeting of 
the Society of Neurosclence and 
has published several papers on 
neurobiology of sound produc- 
tion In fish. 

Robert W. Fisher, associate 
professor of biology, won the 
best poster award for his presen- 
tation on "The Azolla Associa- 
tion — Harnessing a Biological 
Catalyst" at the Mid-Atlantic 
Developmental Conference. He 
also presented papers and 
poster sessions at the meetings of 
the American Society of Plant 

Anne Fortune, associate 
professor of social work, has 
published Task-Centered Prac- 
tice with Families and Groups. 
She also has published "The 
Problem Solving Ability of Social 
Work Students" In the Journal of 
Education for Social Work. 

Gloria Francis, professor of 
community and psychiatric 
nursing, has coauthored "Domes- 
tic Animal Visitation as Therapy 
with Adult Home Residents" to be 
published by the International 
Journal of Nursing Studies. She 
also presented a paper "Pets 
and the Elderly: An Encounter" at 
the Virginia Recreation and Park 
Society Workshop. 

David D. Franks, associate 
professor of sociology and 
anthropology, has edited a 
special Issue of the journal 
Symbolic Interaction on emo- 
tions. He presented a paper at 

the Eastern Sociological Associa- 
tion on Depressive Emotions, 
Power, and Role-taking In 
Philadelphia and was the 
discussant at two sessions at the 
Southern Sociological Associa- 
tion meetings in Charlotte. 

James E. Gates, associate 
professor of biology, presented a 
poster at the meeting of the 
American Society for Microbiol- 
ogy and at the Virginia Aca- 
demy of Science where two of 
his students were awarded 
second and third place for their 
research and presentations. 

William Goggin, assistant 
professor of teacher education, 
and Daisy Reed, associate 
professor of teacher education, 
presented "Student Teachers of a 
Different Kind" at the southeast 
regional conference of the 
Association of Teacher 

Lazar J. Greenfield, professor 
and chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Surgery, was guest 
speaker at the International 
College of Angiology meeting in 
Tours, France, presenting "Surgi- 
cal Approaches to Thromboem- 
bolism." He was a speaker at the 
Bicentenary Meeting of the 
International College of Surgeons 
of Ireland and delivered the W. 
Alton Jones Lecture at the 
University of Missouri, Columbia, 
"Right Ventricular Dysfunction In 

Ralph Hambrick, associate 
professor of public administra- 
tion, chaired a panel at the joint 
annual meeting of the American 
Council on Education and the 
National Association of State 
Universities and Land Grant 
Colleges on "The Expanding 
Professional Service Role for 
American Higher Education." 

Daniel A. Herbert, assistant 
clinical professor of pharmacy, 
was awarded the 1984 Albert E. 
Rosica, Jr. Memorial Award in 
recognition of outstanding 
contributions to pharmacy 
education. Herbert Is currently 
second vice-president elect of 
the Virginia Pharmacy 

Herbert Hirsch, professor and 
chairman of the Department of 
Political Science, presented a 
paper "Why People Kill: Condi- 
tions for Participation In Mass 
Murder." He also has been 
elected a member of the 
Virginia Regional Advisory 
Board, B'nal B'rith Anti-Defama- 
tion League. 

Evelyn A. Jez, instructor In 
English, recently gave a continu- 
ing education program for the 

nursing staff of the Southslde 
Virginia Training Center "Sexism: 
The Social Disease of the Medi- 
cal Profession." She also served 
as one of four presenters for an 
all-day continuing education 
conference for the Petersburg 
School of Nursing. Her topic was 
"The Impact of Feminism Upon 
the Nursing Profession." She has 
been elected vice-president of 
the Richmond Human Rights 
Coalition Foundation for 1985-89. 

Beverly Koering, associate 
professor of social wor1<, has 
published "Women as Home- 
makers: How Social Workers Can 
Help" In Social Casework: The 
Journal of Contemporary Social 

Michael Kolevzon, associate 
professor of social work, has 
published "Conflict and Change 
Along the Continuum in Social 
Wor1< Education" in the Journal of 
Education for Social Work. 

Daniel M. Laskin, professor 
and chairman. Department of 
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 
has published a book Oral and 
Maxillofacial Surgery. He was the 
recipient of the Distinguished 
Alumnus Award from the Indiana 
University School of Dentistry for 

Marcia J. Lawton, associate 
professor of rehabilitation coun- 
seling and director. Alcohol and 
Drug Education/Rehabilitation 
Program, was recently honored 
at a banquet marking the tenth 
annlversan/ of the Alcohol and 
Drug Education/Rehabilitation 

Ardyth J. Lohuis, associate 
professor of music, has been 
appointed to the national 
standing committee on chapter 
development of the American 
Guild of Organists and reap- 
pointed chairman of the Virginia 
chapter of the American Guild of 

Richard S. Luck, associate 
professor of rehabilitation coun- 
seling. Is serving as a consultant 
In Santa Catarina, Brazil, on 
behavior therapy and behavior 
modification techniques for use 
with mentally retarded persons. 
As part of the program, he has 
conducted seminars In Santa 

Margaret May, associate 
professor of biology, has pub- 
lished a book Medical Terminol- 
ogy, which has been adopted 
as a textbook by the medical 
records program of the univer- 
sity's School of Allied Health 

Sara M. McCowan, assistant 
professor of biology, has been 
appointed to the Virginia 


Academy of Science's govern- 
ing board and serves on its 
membership committee. She 
attended the University of 
Chicago Institute on "Critical 
Thinking and the Formation of 

James P. Morgan, assistant 
professor of administration of 
justice and public safety and 
executive director of Public 
Safety and Business Services, 
made a presentation at the 
Agency for International Devel- 
opment to officials from Vitoria- 
Gasteiz, Spain. 

Dennis Poole, assistant 
professor of social work, has 
published DisabilHy, Work, and 
Social Policy with coauthor Aliki 

Walter Ramey, assistant 
professor of education, was 
elected chairman of the Rich- 
mond Chapter of the Society of 
l\/lanufacturing Engineers and 
president of the VCU chapter of 
Phi Delta Kappa. He conducted 
inservice programs on compe- 
tency based vocational educa- 
tion for Hopewell and Charlottes- 
ville/Albemarle vocational 

Judy Richardson, assistant 
professor of education, was 
elected vice-president of Vir- 
ginia College Reading Educa- 
tors. She presented "Adolescent 
Study Behavior" at the Virginia 
Library Association's meeting 
and "Computer-Assisted Instruc- 
tion for Adult Beginning Read- 
ers—Can It Work?" at the Col- 
lege Reading Association's 
Conference in Washington, D.C. 

Warren Strandberg, professor 
of education, presented "A 
Poetic for Education: An Invita- 
tion to an Aesthetic View of the 
Educational Enterprise" to 
the Association of Teacher 

Mabel Wells, associate 
professor of social work, has 
published "The Classroom 
Teaching of Social Work Prac- 
tice" in the Journal of Education 
for Social Work. 

Nelson Wikstrom, associate 
professor of political science, 
presented a paper, "More than 
Meets the Eye: Red Flags and 
Other Storm Signals in American 
Politics" at the annual confer- 
ence of Virginia Political 

Joseph Zanga, associate 
professor of pediatrics, has been 
elected president of the Virginia 
chapter of the American Aca- 
demy of Pediatrics. 

You certainly deserve the "Tacky 
Award" for your male nude art in 
the fall 1984 VCU Magazine 
["Male-male bonding and the 
communal spirit"]. 

I was left wondering whether I 
was being victimized by a 
sexually frustrated female artist 
projecting her sexual fantasies to 
the world or a homosexual male 
artist with an unrepressed desire 
to share his lusts. 

— Man/ia// S. Vau^hiin 
B.S. business. /966; M.S. 1969 

Thanks very much for the article 
about the Philadelphia Com- 
muter Train Station in the VCU 
Magazine ["The fine art of Verlin 
Miller," winter 1985]. The article is 
the most accurate in all the press 
I have seen on the train station 
mural. Of course, it was nice to 
get more attention than the 
architect for once! 

Also, I want to say how hand- 
some the whole magazine looks. 
And "The Church in Nicaragua" 
[winter 1985] was fascinating. 

— Verlin Mdler 

B.F.A. communication arts and 

cfesign, 1975 

The article in the winter issue, 
entitled "The Church in Nicara- 
gua," by the poor, deluded, 
supercilious sap, Pendleton: 
Shouldn't you have heavily 
emphasized the "THE," since it's 
obviously chiefly a promotion of 
one particular sect? 

I, for one, bitterly resent the use 
of our alumni magazine for this 
pseudo-intellectual lightweight's 
attack on my church and on our 
country's foreign policy, under 
the guise of sweet piety and the 
usual tiresome, holier-than-thou 

And please don't call it 
"journalism." One-side-of-the- 
story reporting isn't journalism. It's 
propaganda. That's why there 
are no Soviet journalists, only 

Can Pendleton honestly 
expect anyone besides his fellow 
rednecks to believe that the 
situation in Nicaragua consists 
chietty in a bunch of dirty 
Catholic Somocistas, with the 
approval of the Pope and 
President Reagan, rampaging 
around raping and murdering 
good Protestant communists? I 
can think of any number of good 
Protestant outspoken clergy who 
find It as impossible to reconcile 

the notions of "Christian" and 
"Communist" as do the Pope 
and the Bishops, regardless of 
who is alleged to be raping and 
murdering while ca/Z/ng them- 
selves "Christian." 

I suggest that in his puerile, 
cheerleader eagerness to 
promote his own sectarian and 
extremely narrow views (the 
tragic and scandalous problem 
in the mission fields, to say 
nothing of Northern Ireland and 
other Christian (?) locales for 
centuries), he has become the 
all-too-willing dupe of Soviet 
divide-and-conquer imperialism, 
though he protests, predictably, 
that the Soviets and their Cuban 
tools have no real influence on 
the Sandinista "revolution." 

He found a few priests and 
nuns to agree with him? Given 
the spotlight of public attention, 
some fools will babble anything 
to demonstrate what "original 
thinkers" they would like to be 
perceived as being. Witness the 
nightly television newscasts. Or 
"The Church in Nicaragua." 

If the English department is so 
hard up for personnel that it has 
to employ this thinly-disguised 
bigot, do you have to publish 
him? in the alumni magazine? Or 
do you admire his views? 

At any rate, I seem to have 
missed the news of VCU's 
transition from a state-supported 
institution to a private sectarian 
propaganda mill, where, be- 
cause public funding is no 
longer involved, the church-state 
separation laws no longer apply, 
and people like Pendleton are 
therefore free to propagate their 
own "religion." (What kind of 
religion is anti-Catholicism, 
anyway? Who, besides Madalyn 
Murray O'Hair, goes around 
preaching what they don't 

Finally, there's that fascinating 
illustration! A Sandinista angel? 
Good God, a communist, atheist 
Angel? And straight from the 
Sistine Chapel ceiling, ap- 
parently! Ludicrous! 

Christian Communists? Atheis- 
tic Angels? Talk about Orwell's 
"doublethink!" 1984 was last year 
But it isn't over yet, is it? 

Remove my name from your 
mailing list. And, of course, since 
I do not intend to support any 
church save my own (plus, of 
course, the Salvation Army, 
Moral Majority, Billy Graham, 
etc.), I will also have my name 
removed from the alumni Annual 
Giving list. 

— ;/dmes }. Keih, Jr. 
M.S. psyd^obgy, 1957 

Many thanks for Professor James 
Pendleton's "The Church in 
Nicaragua" in the winter issue of 
the VCU Magazine. Also, the 
inset sketch of U.S.-Nlcaragua 
relations was effectively done. 

Along with two colleagues 
from our faculty, I was there last 
July and received the same 
impressions Professor Pendleton 
received through his interviews. 

Every good wish to the Maga- 
zine and thanks for all the good 
work that goes into carefully 
prepared articles. 

— H. McKennie Goodpasture 

F. S. Royster Professor of 

Christian Missions 

Union Theoiogicai Seminary, Ricfimomi 

I have recently arrived at my 
new assignment in San Salvador, 
El Salvador, and found the VCU 
Magazine in my forwarded mail. 
I want to thank you and your staff 
for an excellent job well done. 
The VCU Magazine has followed 
me around the world in my 
assignments with the U.S. Depart- 
ment of State. 

P.S. My means of travel to El 
Salvador was sailing my Nauti- 
cat52 from Turku, Finland, to 
Isia de Roatan (Bay Islands), 

^ames G. Trum 

B.S. business. 1967 

Financial Manager 

American Embassy San SalvaJbr 

I thoroughly enjoyed DelDorah 
Sloan's minute-by-minute ac- 
count of a day in the life of her 
third-year medical student 
brother, Geoffrey [winter 1985]. I 
think that we have all seen so 
many television shows about 
hospital life that we forget about 
the actual rigor of medical 
student, resident, and intern life. 
Miss Sloan's clean and sparse 
prose gave me all the informa- 
tion I wanted to know, yet kept 
me wanting to read more about 
this day in the life of a medical 

It was also gratifying to note 
the author is a graduate of VCU's ; 
School of Mass Communications. ' 
Obviously, she is learning her 
craft well. 

— -John H. Bargard 

Assistant Dean 

College of Humanities and Sciences 




With university enrollments 
declining on campuses 
nationwide and with 
colleges literally waging com- 
petitive war for top-notch stu- 
dents, a new emphasis has been 
placed on student recruitment. 

It is no longer enough for 
universities to send admissions 
representatives to college nights 
at local high schools and vie for 
the attention of thousands of 
students from hundreds of other 
institutions of higher learning. Nor 
is it enough to expect that 
students will rush to our admis- 
sions offices without being 

Students of the '80s want more. 
Incoming freshmen want to be 
sure they are getting the most for 
their college dollar. High school 
juniors and seniors apply to 
many more schools than they 
used to. Their selectiveness has 
encouraged universities to stay 
on their toes and keep abreast 
of the competition. 

We at VCU have been trying 
to find new ways of effectively 
reaching these first-rate students; 
you as recipients of a VCU 
education can help. We need 
you to become Ambassadors, to 
volunteer a small amount of your 
time to call or write your local 
high school students whom we 
have accepted for admission. 
We need you to tell them about 
your college days and how 
much VCU has meant to you. 

With your help, we can show 
our prospective students thot our 
alumni care enough to stay 
actively involved with the univer- 
sity. Your recommendation of us 
will not only help guarantee the 
value of your degree but also 
assist us in ensuring the quality of 
students that come to VCU. 

Please join us in this program 
by filling out the "Active Alum- 
nus" response form on page 31 

Stephen C. Harvey 

Director, VCU Alumni Activities 



Preildenr— J Dale Bimion 

Ptesioent— D' Allon 

Hodges. Ji 

VCU Alumni AssocloMo 
Presidenl— J Dole Bims 


D' OoviOC Whlre^eaa Jr 


Bouc Sciences 
Divii)On Chai'tnan 
Dt Hermei A Hon ice 

Bu*neu Oi».uon 

f OLKatiOn Division 


RcOe" A Hamilton, J( 


Socioi Wort Divis 
Wilhom P PaWon 


1 1 

vision All.ea Heolth Diviwor Ccnwrnjnitv orvl Public Altaifi Humanilies ond Sciences 

Chairman Division President OivUkxi President 
Oowae' Moiv Be'h Poppa-. JomeiDFo. BeniommS Hyman 


Marjorle B. Adams (St Philip 
nursing) retired from the Baltimore City 
Heolth Department, Bureau of School 
Health Services. 


Ralph S. RIffenburgh (M D) spent 
two weeks lest year on Eoster Island 
working in the hospital. He was the 
first ophthalmologist ever fo be on the 


Laura M. Montgomery (B S 

physical therapy) is retired from 
nursing and teaching. She writes 


George J. Jonosik (B,S, phar- 
macy) retired in 1983 after being in 
business at Central Dajg Company in 
Hopewell for 32 years, 


Jean Godfrey Cook (B S occupa- 
tional therapy) is in private practice 
as a consultant for long-term care 
facilities in Peoria, Illinois, 


Felix C. Gotschalk (MS clinical 
psychology) has retired after 25 years 
as a psychologist in Louisiana and 
North Carolina, An author as well, 
he has had 100 works of fiction 

Pafli G. Robertson (B S physical 
therapy) is a physical therapist at the 
Jackson Hospital and Clinic in 
Montgomery, Alabama. 

Herman L. West (B.S, physical 
therapy) is director of physical 
therapy for Chesapeake General 
Hospital in Chesapeake, 


Percy Wootton (M D) was 

awarded the 1984 Community 
Service Award by the Medical 
Societ/ of Virginia at its annual fall 
meeting. He is the youngest person 
to receive this honor in the history of 
the medical society, 


Robert E. Collins (M D) is presi- 
dent of the District of Columbia 
Medical Society and has been 
reelected to the Board of Trustees of 

Washington Health Care Corporation, 
Washington, D,C, 

Non/ell W. West (B FA interior 
design) is employed by Woodard- 
West, Limited, where he is an interior 
designer and secretary of the 


Stephen L. Bissell (D D S ). a 

faculty member on the MCV Cam- 
pus, has been named to the Bank of 
Virginia's Petersburg-Dinwiddle 

Joseph T. Sakakini (M D.) is 
professor and associate chairman of 
the Department of Obstetrics- 
Gynecology at Texas Tech School of 


Cecilia C. Sakakini (B.S nursing) Is 
in the master's program of the School 
of Nursing at the University of Texas, 
El Paso, 


Edward A. Zakaib (M D ) is a 

trustee of the Richmond Academy of 
Medicine, post president of the 
Richmond Academy of Family 
Physicians, and medical director of 
the United Medical Plan of Virginia, 


David J. McKinney (pharmacy) 
has been selected chief pharmacist 
for Virginia Baptist Hospital in 


G. David Eddleman (MM), of 
Rockaway, New Jersey, has received 
his third award from ASCAP and 
published eight new choral works 
with Carl Fischer, Shawnee Press, 
Jensen Publications, and Hal Leonard 
Publishing Corporation, 

Willie B. Wright (M,F A painting) 
was part of o new-member show at 
the 1708 Gallery in December 1984 in 

Do you have news about 
yourself for the VCU 
Magazine ? Ivlail your 
updates to VCU Magazine, 
Alumni Update. 826 West Franklin 
Street, Richmond, VA 23284- 

Sometimes we do not get your 
information in the issue you might 
expect, but we make every effort 
to print your updates as soon as 
possible. Be patient, and look for 
your update in the next issue. 
Write to us. 


Harry E. "Woody" Eney III (M F A 

drama) has made numerous televi- 
sion appearances and has also 
appeared at the Alley Theatre in 
Houston, Texas, 

Sfacey L, McMarlin (M D ), 
assistant chief of dermatology 
services at Walter Reed Army 
Medical Center, became a fellow of 
the American College of Chemo- 
surgery in December 1984, 


Jane Rollins Ingalls (B S nursing) is 
associate professor of nursing at 
Germanna Community College, 
Locust Grove, Virginia 

David L. King (B,S, advertising) has 
been promoted to senior vice- 
president of MARCOA Direct 
Advertising, Inc, Chicago, 

Barbara B. Leaman (M S W) is a 
clinical social worker with the Virginia 
Department of Health in Roanoke, 

J. Kemp Smith (B,S, business) has 
been promoted to vice-president of 
the Bank of West Point, Virginia, 


Edward J. Kerns, Jr. (B F A ) 

illustrated a collection of 'prayers for 
the battle" in the book Guerrillas of 
Grace In fall 1984, he exhibited his 
abstract paintings at the Rosa Esman 
Gallery in New York City, 


Norman E. Land (BFA) has been 
appointed chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Art History and Archaeology 
at the University of Missouri-Columbia. 

Roger D. Neal (MD). an otolaryn- 
gologist and maxillofacial surgeon, 
has been elected to serve on the 
advisory board of Sovran Bank, 

Betty-Jo M. Norman (BFA) is a 
self-employed artist in Minnesota, She 
specializes in portraiture, 

Teresa T, Stein (B,S pharmacy) is 
director of pharmaceutical services 
at the Virginia Baptist Home Phar- 
macy in Culpeper and is on instructor 
of pharmacology at Germanna 
Community College in Locust Grove, 

Nora Miller Tenney (B S, physical 
therapy) is director of physical 
therapy at Bryn Mowr Chateau 
Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in 
Bryn Mowr. Pennsylvania, 



John H. Chaulklin, Jr. (B.S. business 
administration) is o systems analyst for 
Burlington Industries, 

Sarah Riley Land (B.FA) has been 
appointed ctiairman of the art 
deportment at Stephens College in 
Columbia, Missouri. 

John J. Schwartz (B S. accounting) 
has purchased the Chesterfield 
Apartments in Richmond. 

Danny W. Turman (B S general 
business) is customer service man- 
ager for Hubbell Lighting Division in 
Chrlstiansburg. Virginia. 


Etta P. Edwards (B.FA, painting 
and prinfmaking) held an art show at 
the Richmond Public Library In 
December 1984. 

Esther Leiper Estobrooks (B A 
English) is new/ly published by Inkling 
Publications, Inc. and is a regular 
columnist for the North Country 
Weekly In Jefferson, New Hampshire. 

Errol R, Flynn (B.S. accounting) is a 
self-employed CPA. 


Charles E. Brady III (M D.) has 

been promoted to Colonel and Is 
chairman of the Department of 
Gastroenterology, Wllford Hall USAF 
Medical Center, Lackland Air Force 

Catherine V. Caufhorne (B S 
nursing) is o management consultant 
with the Department of Human 
Resources at Norfolk General Hospital 
and has completed qualifying exams 
on her Ph.D. 

Mark Q. Emick (B.S. history and 
social science education) Is assistant 
to the president at Virginia Western 
Community College 

Norman B. Harris (B S. histon/ and 
social science education) is the new 
pastor at Swift Creek Baptist Church in 
Colonial Heights. 

M. DIanne Murphy (M D ) is 
associate professor and head of 
pediatric infection and also director 
of Inpatient seivices at the University 
of Tennessee, Knoxvlile. 

John E. Nickens (B.M.E.) is the new 
pastor at Shiloh (New Site) Baptist 
Church in Fredericksburg. 

Jerry G. Overman (B S. manage- 
ment) is second vice-president and 
manager of the Investment services 
division. Continental Financial 
Services Company, Richmond. 

Anthony J. Puccinelli (B.S 
accounting) has been promoted to 
president of Titmus Optical, Inc. in 


Ronald L. Caricofe (MS business) 
has been appointed vice-president/ 
treasurer and senior accounting 
officer for Concrete Pipe and 
Products Company. 

William R. Davis (B S. psychology) 
has joined the trust department of 
Dominion Bank in Roanoke. 

Edward V. Jones III (M.S. rehabili- 
tation counseling), a faculty member 
in the Department of Education at 
George Mason University, has 

received recognition from the U.S. 
Department of Education for his work 
with adult illiterates. His book, 
Reading Instruction for the Adult 
Illiterate, was published in 1981. 

Empsy M. W. Munden (B S 
pharmacy) is assistant director of 
pharmacy at Chesapeake General 
Hospital and is president-elect of 
the Virginia Society of Hospital 

Paul R. Munson (M.F.A. sculpture) 
exhibited eight new sculptures and 
more than 14 drawings at an art 
exhibition held at Bridgewoter 
College, Harrisonburg 

Michael W. Noblefte (B S business 
administration) Is assistant vice- 
president for the Page Valley 
National Bank In Luray. 

Robert S. Tucker (B.S. advertising) 
has been named marketing director 
of the Covington Virginian. 


John P. Dworak (B.FA. communi- 
cation arts and design) Is a medio 
production coordinator for the 
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and is 
an adjunct faculty member in VCU's 
Department of Communication Arts 
and Design. 

Darlene Brown Litton (M D ) has 
been named chief of staff of Lone- 
some Pine Hospital in Big Stone Gap, 

Linda P. Taylor (B.FA. fashion 
design) has been named director of 
a new customer service department 
at Miller & Rhoods. Richmond. 


Carlton J, Bagley, Jr. (B S business 
administration) Is with ADP-Colllsion 
Estimating Services In Rolling Mead- 
ows, Illinois. 

Rexford F. Beckwith III (B S. 
management) recently was selected 
administrator of Rappahannock 
Westminster-Canterbury, a new 
nonprofit life core retirement facility In 

Lynn A. Doss (B.S. social welfare) is 
a social wor1<er with the city of 

Janet Rowell Driscoll (B FA 
communication arts and design) for 
the lost four years has been co-owner 
of Kidd and Company, a design and 
communications firm In Tallahassee, 

George H. St. George (M H A ) has 
joined the Sisters of Mercy Health 
Corporation and has been ap- 
pointed chief executive officer of 
Mercy Community Hospital, Port 
Jervis, New York. 


John A. Christopher, Jr. (B.S mass 
communications) has been promoted 
to state editor of the Tampa Tribune of 
Tampa, Florida. 

Virginia Forrar Diggs (M Ed 
elementan/ education) addressed 
teachers, administrators, and staff of 
Brunswick County Public Schools In 
South Hill, Virginia, on the topic, 
"Bridging the Gap: Improving 
Communication between the 
Educational System and the Commu- 

nity," during American Education 

Donald C. Garabedian (B S 
accounting) has recently rejoined the 
San Francisco office of Coopers & 
Lybrand as on audit manager. 

Valerie J. Hunt (MS nursing) is 
director of nursing education at St. 
Elizabeth's Hospital In Boston 

Stephanie J. Masquelier- 
McCaulla (M.Ed, distributive 
education. B.S. retailing. 1970) is 
chairman of the Business Division of 
Longvlew Community College in 
Kansas City, Missouri. She teaches 
marketing courses and oversees 
business, data processing, and office 
science courses. 

David M. Rockmore (M D ). a 
pediatrician/flight surgeon for the 
USPHS-USCG, recently has been 
transferred to Kodlak, Alaska. 


Catherine S. Hargan (B S social 
welfare) is in her eighth year as a 
senior social wor1<er for New Kent 
County Social Seivices. 

Thomas R. Harrison (MS business 
administration) recently was ap- 
pointed vice-president at the Bank of 
Virginia In Tysons Corner, McLean. 

G. Byron Peck (B.FA. painting and 
prinfmaking) is a freelance artist in 
Washington. DC. and recently had 
selections of his art chosen to be 
Included in the 1985 editions of the 
Washington, D.C., and the New York 
Art Directors Annual. 


Marilyn Ann Fitzgerald (B S 

business administration and mange- 
ment) has been named an assistant 
vice-president for the Bank of 
Virginia, Richmond. 

Steven C, Hoelscher (M.H.A.) is an 
administrator with the Hospital 
Corporation of America in Tennessee. 

Richard S, Niess (B.S. business 
administration and management) is 
president of Niess & Associates — Real 
Estate Appraisers, Richmond. 

Robert M. Spencer (M.D ) is a 
Major in the United States Army 
stationed at Brooke Army Medical 
Center, San Antonio, Texas. 

Jeanne B. Stinchcomb (MS 
administration of justice) has com- 
pleted her Ph.D. in the VCU social 
policy and social work program. She 
Is currently employed as director of 
training in the Dade Count/ Correc- 
tions and Rehabilitation Department. 
Miami. Florida. 

Thomas A. Sutterfield (B S 
business administration) is a project 
communications consultant for 
Reynolds Metals Company. 

Lynn T Taylor (B.S. marketing) has 
accepted a job as an insurance 
agent for Equitable Insurance 
Company in Georgia 

Wirt L. Thompson III (M.H A ) has 
been named community relations 
field representative of Appalachian 
Regional Hospitals. 

Shirley A. Wilson (MS nursing) is 
on assistant professor of nursing at the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 

Please notify us of your change of 



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Zip Code 

Send to 

Alumni Records Officer 
Advancement Services 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
828 West Franklin Street 
Richmond, VA 23284-0001 
(804) 257-1217 

Important Note: If this magazine Is 
addressed to an alumnus who no 
longer lives at the address printed on 
the address label, please advise us 
so that we can correct our records. If 
you know the person's correct 
address, we would appreciate that 
information Also, if a husband and 
wife are receiving more than one 
copy of the magazine, we would like 
to know so that we can avoid 
duplicate mailings. Please provide 
the names of both Individuals plus the 
wife's maiden name, if appropriate. 



William Henry Graybeal (B S 

pharmacy) has been named director 
of pharmacy services at Montgomery 
County Hospital. 

Douglas A. Heretick (MP A), 
assistant city manager for the city of 
Hopewell, was recognized by the 
Virginia Joycees as one of the Ten 
Outstanding Young Virginians. 

Charles W.Meyer III (MP A 
community services) is a realtor with 
C. Porter Vaughan. Inc., Richmond. 

Keith R. Miller (B.S administration 
of justice and public safety), a 
special agent for the U.S Department 
of Defense, has been transferred to 

E. Douglas Pratt (M S.W.) recently 
was presented the Outstanding 
Dissertation Award 1984-85 by the 
University of Alabama Graduate 
School of Social Work. 

Elizabeth Mather Reed (B A 
political science), a 1981 graduate of 
the University of Oregon School of 
Law, is city attorney for Roseburg, 

Velma Scaife (B.S. moss communi- 
cations), living in Emory, Virginia, has 
been named the 11 pm anchor for 

Janet Petty Smith (B,S. nursing) 
received a master's degree in 
primary core nursing from the 
University of Man/land Graduate 
School and is presently employed by 
the Washington Hospital Center as a 
cardiac nurse practitioner. 


Francis T. Childress (MBA) has 
been named senior budget analyst 
for the corporate controller's function 
of McCormick 8c. Co., Inc., in 

Jane Morris Dobyns (Post Bacc 
Cert, accounting) recently started her 
own CPA practice in Richmond. 

Donna Young Ducey (MS 
nursing) recently was promoted to 
vice-president of professional services 
of Radford Community Hospital in 
Radford, Virginia. 

Rosemarie Teresa Greyson-Fleg 
(M.D.) is staff radiologist for the 
Department of Radiology at Sinai 
Hospital of Baltimore, Maryland. 

Charles Kouns (B.S. English 
education) has been named director 
of Corporate Communications for 
S&K in Richmond. He will establish the 
company's first corporate communi- 
cations department and will develop 
programs in investor relations, media 
relations, employee communications, 
and community support. 

Jonathan D. Kuhn (M F A crafts) 
recently exhibited his Pertroglyph 
Series, a gem collection, at the Green 
Hill Center for North Caroline Art in 

Stephen T. Mitchell (B.S business 
administration and management) is a 
subcontracts administrator for Watkins 
Johnson in Gaithersburg, Maryland. 

Garry D. Yarbrough (B M E ) has 
been teaching music in the city of 
Richmond's elementary program of 
arts and humanities for six years. 


Ann L. Chenoweth (M F A 

painting and printmaking, B.F.A. 1974) 
and Thomas E. Chenoweth (M F A. 
sculpture), sister and brother, recently 
exhibited their wort<s in the Reynolds/ 
Minor Gallery in Richmond 

Gregory L. Duncan (Ph.D. clinical 
psychology) has been selected as 
one of the "Outstanding Young Men 
of America " for 1984. 

Henrietta A. Green (M Ed 
administration and supen/ision) is a 
coordinator for parent education in 
the Richmond Public Schools where 
she wor1<s primarily with parents in 
volunteer programs. 

Deborah M. Newby (BS mass 
communications) is a writer in the 
news bureau at Lynchburg College 

John F. Porter (B.F.A. communica- 
tion arts and design) is self-employed 
with John Porter Design as o 
freelance illustrotor and graphic 
designer in Rockville, Maryland. 

W. B. Schlegel (Cert, accounting) 
has recently accepted a promotion 
to a GS-13 position in the IRS National 
Office in Washington. D.C. 


Deborah Atno-Shelfon (M.S.W.) is 
a social wori<er for the Staunton- 
Augusta Department of Social 

James R. Bedenbaugh (MBA) 
has recently accepted a position as 
associate director of finance at the 
corporate headquarters of Charter 
Medical Corporation in Macon, 

Jeffrey Curling (B.A. history) has 
received his Master of Divinity degree 
from the Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. 

Selby Virginia Frame (B F A. 
theatre) is director of mar1<eting for a 
software company and correspon- 
dent for a local newspaper in 
Camden, Maine. 

Julie Gillespie (M Ed. adult 
education) is the program manager 
for the Arthritis Foundation, Richmond 
Tri-Citv Branch. 

Cathy C. Herndon (MAE) Is an 
art teacher at Gayle Middle School in 
Stafford County. She does airbrush 
artwork and scrimshaw painting and 

Brett Lewis (B.F.A. art history) has 
his own company where he creates 
fashion accessories for leading 
American designers including Bill 
Blass, Oscar de la Rente, Geoffrey 
Beene, and Albert Coparo. 

Loreffa V. Mounfcastle (M.SW) is 
a social wor1<er for United Methodist 
Family Services in Richmond. 

Vita L. Press (B.S.W.) is a counselor 
for Family and Children's Services of 

Susan R, Roebuck (B.S. elemen- 
tary education) is a teacher for the 
government of the Virgin Islands. 

Michael A. Ventrella (B A 
political science) has received the 
J.D. degree from the New England 
School of Law. 

A Richmond resident 

By Robert Goldblum 

John Alspaugh gives life to the 
nneoning of the word "paradox." 

He is a writer, yet he believes 
his true talent lies in painting. He 
Is fascinated with light, yet he 
lives in a dinnly lit, near-window- 
less basement apartment. His 
conversation is filled to overflow- 
ing with abstract phrases and 
esoteric concepts, yet he calls 
himself an imagist, committed to 
the clean, concrete image. He 
speaks of his sensitivity forcing 
him out of the nine-to-five 
working routine and into the 
world of poetry and fiction, yet 
he works construction from time 
to time and decorates part of his 
apartment with barbells and 
dumbbells. He says his recently 
completed novel is realistic, yet 
adds, "I hope it's so dreamy, it's 

Given Alspaugh's philosophy 
on life and literature, the appar- 
ent contradictions seem per- 

fectly natural, though they are 
rarely resolved. He says he is a 
writer seeking to unify the oppos- 
ing sides of life: youth and old 
age, light and darkness, com- 
edy and tragedy, the real and 
the dreamlike. And It is in his 
fiction and poetry where Als- 
paugh tries to strike a balance 
between these oppositions. 

"Great art," he noted, "should 
show you both sides." 

In discussing the paradox of 
the title of his book of poetry. 
Everything Dark is a Doorway (It 
won the 1981 National Society of 
Arts and Letters Award for 
Literature/Poetry and was 
nominated for a Pulitzer Prize), 
the 1979 English graduate 
explained part of his sometimes 
obtuse philosophy. 

"The title refers to negative 
experiences. If you feel low, like 
you're at the pit of your life, you 
can always transform the nega- 
tive experience into something 
more enlightened." 

Alspaugh's fascination with 
light, or that which is enlight- 
ened. Is an important part of his 
writing and his life. 

"As a philosopher, I'm looking 
for a unified answer to why we're 



John M. Cazan, Jr. (M D ) is on the 
surgery housestaff at Wtieeling 
Hospital, Medical Parl<, Wheeling, 
West Virginia. He has completed two 
years of surgical training at Washing- 
ton Hospital Center and will return to 
emergency room residency training 
this year, 

Steven R. Jones (B S mass 
communications) is manager of 
corporate communications for United 
Software Security in McLean, 

Richard A. Joralman II (D D S ) is a 
dentist with National Health Service 
Corporation and living in Lockhart, 

Theodore D. Lee (B,F,A, painting 
and printmaking) was an exhibitor in 
"Next Generation," a showing of work 
in Dillard Gallery at the Lynchburg 
Fine Arts Center, 

Patricia P. Suarez (M P A ) is an 
evaluation analyst for the Department 
of Planning/Budget for Virginia, 


Jeanne Cartier (MS, nursing) is an 
instructor at the University of Massa- 
chusetts, Boston, 

Norman D. Winegar (MSW) is 
employed as a psychiatric social 
worker in the capacity of director, 
outpatient services in Holston Medicol 
Health Center in Kingsport, Tennessee, 


Elizabeth M. Altice (B,S, account- 
ing) is a staff accountant for Coopers 
& Lybrand, 

Patricia A. Bowman (B S phar- 
macy) recently passed the Virginia 
State Board of Pharmacy examina- 
tion. She is now a registered pharma- 
cist at Peoples Drug Company in 
Newport News, 

Harvey P. Burke (B,S information 
systems) has been named operations 
support manager of Blue Cross/Blue 
Shield of the Virginia Data Center for 
HealthNet Corporation, Richmond, 

Daniel J. Chen (Cert, accounting) 
is a staff accountant for McGadrey 
Hendrickson and Pullen, 

Donna K. Dawson (MS gerontol- 
ogy) has been selected as the 
project director for the Geriatric Core 
Assisting program at Piedmont 
Technical College 

R. Steven Landes (BS mass 
communications), a staff writer for the 
Staunton Daily News Leader and the 
Sunday News Leader, is coordinator 
of the Newspaper in Education 
program for area schools and has 
started a pilot program in the 
Staunton Public Schools, 

William J. Walsh (B S information 
systems) is a programmer/analyst for 

David E, Wayner (B S business 
administration and management) is 
the owner/operator of Wayner 
Construction Company and is o real 
estate salesman for G, E, Matthews, 
Inc. both of Petersburg, 

Brian E. Workman (B S business 
administration and management) is o 
bank card adjuster for the Bank of 
Virginia. Richmond, 

Become an active alumnus 

You may think you have to hove 
a lot of time or money or live in 
the Richmond area to become 
on active alumnus — but you 

The VCU Alumni Activities Of- 
fice is looking for alumni support 

through a host of new programs. If 
you vi/ould be interested in one or 
more of the following programs, 
please complete this form and re- 
turn it to us. We will send you the 
information you request. 

I want to be an active VCU alumnus! Please send me 

information about 

n how I can become involved with the board of directors of 

my college or school 
n the VCU Internotional Studies Program 

□ Please update my alumni record 

□ Please sign me up as a VCU Alumni Ambassador (see pg, 28) 


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VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franl<lin Street 
Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 

here and how things began. At 
the beginning of time, there was 
light. Light is a symbol of exis- 
tence and truth. The knowledge 
of light and its properties may 
unravel the secrets of the uni- 
verse. . . . Light warrants study on 
a symbolic level." 

In trying to incorporate his 
interest in light into his new novel 
entitled A Foolish Fire (it is 
currently being considered for 
publication by MacMillan), 
Alspaugh sets the story in Aurora, 
North Carolina. He also uses as 
the central symbol of the novel a 
bizarre natural occurrence — a 
nocturnol light. 

The novel, which Alspaugh 
describes as basically a humor- 
ous book that is part love story, 
part adventure, is as paradoxi- 
cal as everything else about the 
writer. Claiming the novel is 
realistic, still much of it grew out 
of a dream diary Alspaugh kept 
between 1977 and 1982. 

"Many of the situations in the 
novel came from the dreoms, I'd 
get up in the middle of the night 
and start to write. It was the best 

discipline I'd ever had as a 
writer. I found a lot of patterns in 
my dreams, and the novel, at 
least to me, is about how they 

"An artist, too, is a public 
dreamer. He puts out interpretive 
public dreams. Dreams are a 
quest for consciousness. An artist 
has a vision, an interpretation of 

Alspaugh, who has given a 
number of readings in the 
Richmond area and taught in 
the Poetry-in-the-Schools pro- 
gram in Richmond, Virginia 
Beach, and Harrisonburg in the 
last few years, reminds one of the 
stereotypical "starving artist," He 
has worked a variety of odd jobs 
in the past several years, none of 
which has paid very much, so 
that he can continue to write. 

He is currently working part 
time at a Carytown bookstore in 
Richmond, assisting a friend who 
builds houses, and reading his 
work to prisoners and bed-ridden 
people as part of a year-long 
grant through the New Virginia 
Review, "Sharing Our Literar/ 
Heritage with Confined 

Asked about Richmond's 
literary scene, Alspaugh said he 
wished all the writers in the city 
could manage to get together 
"Writers are nomadic. I rarely talk 
in depth with any other .writer 
There are a mass of them out 
there that drift around." 

Alspaugh added that the 
English department's Master of 
Fine Arts program, established in 
1983 when poet/novelist Dave 
Smith joined the university, would 
probably help to bring Rich- 
mond's writers closer together He 
thinks that by having an M.F.A. 
program at VCU, a kind of 
headquarters for Richmond's 
literary scene, local writers might 
interact with one another more 
than they are doing now. CJ 

Robert Gdhihium is an editor far the 
Petersburg Pn)gress-lndex and 
instructor in English at the university. 

PhoUi^aphy b;« Chip Mitchell. 

Class Rings 

If you did not buy a class ring as 
a student, you can now order 
one. Rings for men and women 
ore available in a variety of 
sizes. For more information and 
a price list, write for a ring order 
kit. If you graduated before 
1968, please indicate Medical 
College of Virginia, if applica- 
ble, when ordering a kit. Write 
for the kit — and for information 
about VCU watches — to 
VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franl<lin Street 
Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 




■i^^:^ ^- ' 

Decorative glassware, quality fin- 
isli, beautiful style. Eacti em- 
bossed with ttie VCU seal: 

9 oz. Old Fasliion #818/$2.75 

10 oz. Tumbler #812/$2.50 
IV2 oz. Stiot glass #2211/$1.79 
6 in. Ashtray #800/$4.99 

15 oz. Tankard #205/$5.49 

Automatic self-opening umbrella. 
50-inch spread. 100% nylon, 
black and gold, embossed with 
the VCU seal. #7158/$8.99 

Stuffed animals. White ram orna- 
mented with a black and gold 
VCU ribbon end black felt cape. 
8" high. #8/$8.99 

Collegiate mug, handsomely 
trimmed in gold. 4" high, 3V4" dia., 
15oz #M155/$8.99 

Deluxe feature college mug. tVlul- 
ticolor seal on a white back- 
ground. Classic lines, 5'2" high, 
3V2" dia., 20 oz. #M204/$14.99 

Barclay Sheaks (VCU alumnus 

■49) prints, unframed: 
Ginter House #AA4A 
Egyptian Building #AA4B 

Each measures 14'/2" » 12". $25 

Notched cylinder ashtray, 7" dia. 

Classic felt pennant. 8" 


Polyester and mesh baseball cap 
with adjustable snap tab back, 
2" VCU flocked lettering on front. 

Coffee mug. All time favorite with 
coffee drinkers. Generous 10 02. 
size. 33,4" high, 3V4" dia. #DM20/ 

Queen Anne bread and butter 
plate. An elegant rendering of 
Ginter House in Welton Arne- 
tale®. 7" dia. #10Z-0442/$14.99 

Tavern mug. Heavy custom 
crested pewler-look tankard, 43/4" 
high. 17 oz #166-0812/$19.99 

VCU tVlirrors (only lour left): 
Two of the Egyptian Building on 

the MCV Campus #AA3A 
One of Ginter House on the Ac- 
ademic Campus #AA3B 
One of the James Branch Ca- 
bell Library #AA3C 
These framed mirrors measure 14" 
X 26" with the pictures in the up- 
per portion of the mirror measur- 
ing 11 V2" X 6V2". $140 

Rich looking embroidered 
placket shirt, rib knit cuff, and soft 
fashion collar Adult sizes S, tvl, L, 
XL; black and lemon, #052X/ 

Black enamel arm chairs, with 
VCU seal on the back of the 
chair and cherry-colored arms. 

VCU men's neckties. Attractive 
navy background with small gold 
VCU seals. #AA1/$15 

Solid brass key ring engraved 
with the VCU seal. #5B-K/$3.49 

Basic sweat. Comfort makes this 
50% cotton, 50% polyester sweat- 
shirt a year-round favorite. Classic 
raglan sleeves. Adult sizes S, M, L, 
XL, fuschia, navy, banana, laven- 
dar, black, #3051F/$9.99 Chil- 
dren's sizes 6-8, 10-12, 14-16; navy, 

Tackle twill hooded sweatshirt. 
Letters are cut from colorful tackle 
twill and sewn on heavyweight 
fleece of 50% cotton, 50% 
Careslanii?!. Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; 
black, #M550/$22.99 Matching 
sweatpant, #P550/$8.99 

Pullover hooded sweatshirt with 
trim color accented hood lining, 
sleeve stripes, and raglan piping. 
Muff styled front pocket. 50% cot- 
ton, 50% polyester. Adult sizes S, 
M, L, XL; purple, #799/$19.99 

Heavyweight fleece hooded 
sweatshirt, raglan shoulders, rib 
knit cuffs and waistband. Muff 
pocket with reinforced stitching. 
Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; gold and 
black on white, or red and navy 
on white. #798A/$15.99 

VCU Campus Bookstore 
900 Park Avenue 
Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 

Item # Quantity Description 




Send orders with desired form of poyment. Returns requesting a 
ctionge of size or item due to customer error will require on odditionol 
S2 tiondling chorge. IVIoke criecl< pqyqble to VCU Campus 
Bookstore, or use credit card. 

Please ctiorge to my n VISA or n MasterCard 

Credit Card Number Exp. Date: Mo/Yr 

If IVIasterCard, enter ttie four digits above your name here 

Virginia Sales Tax 4% 

Shipping, tiandling, 
and insurance 


Tolol $_ 

Stiip to 





Zip Code 



The VCU Alumni Activities Office 
is sponsoring four overseas trips in 
late summer and fall through its 
travel program. 


August 18-30 

This trip features first-class ac- 
commodations in Stockholm, 
Oslo, and Copenhagen. All trip 
transfers are included, as well as 
a Scandinavian breakfast each 
day, five full-course dinners, and 
four lunches. The tour is by motor- 
coach and train vi/ith profes- 
sional guides, and a ride on the 
Flaam Railvi/ay and an overnight 
steamer. Priced from Richmond. 


Mediterranean Air/Sea 


September 4-17 
starting at $2,699 

The air/sec cruise indue 
roundtrip airfare from fslew York 
to Athens, Greece. The cruise 
stops at several sites in Greece, 
as well OS Egypt, Israel, and Italy. 
Specially priced shore excursions 
also can be arranged. 


Septem ber 2 7 -October 9 ^ 

Leaving from New York, travelers 
will tour the cities of Helsinki, Mos- 
cow, Vladimir, Suzdal, Kiev, and 
Leningrad. Meals and sightsee- 
ing are included. 


November 23-December 1 

Travelers will leave from Rich- 
mond and spend seven nights in 
London, an optional meal plan is 
available. The trip can be ex- 
tended to Paris and Monte 
Carlo-Nice. The Paris option in- 
cludes four nights' accommoda- 
tions for $344; the Monte Carlo- 
Nice option, available only if 
also selecting the Paris option, is 
three nights for S299. 

Fen more in/nrmciinm, aimplcle and 
Ji;lach [/ii.s farm or uTitc to thu VCU 
Ahtmm Aciwaws Offjct: 828 Wat 
FmnWin Sirt'c'i, Richmmd. VA 2^284- 
000 L 

I h ^'^''f^4:i'^m^^^Tm^^mymm^:.^f^^^^^^- 

I Name_ 


VCU Alumni Travel 1985 

Please send me more information on the trip(s) checked below; 

□ Scandinavia 

□ Mediterranean Air/Sea Cruise 

□ Russia 

□ London 


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, State- 

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' Return to 

I VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franklin Street 
Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 

veil Magazine 

VCU Publications 

826 West Franklin Street 

Richmond, VA 23284-0001 


Nonprofit Organization 

U.S. Postage 


Permit No. 869 

Richmond, Virginia 

■ < 


"During the Second Annual Spring Phonathon, 

alumni and student volunteer callers brought in 

pledges totaling $42,659 from alumni across the 

nation. See page 23.